Table 5

Post-traumatic growth: differences between liver transplant recipients (G1) and their caregivers (G2) by time since transplantation (2×3 mixed factorial analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test)

Main effectsInteraction effectsComparisons G1–G2, p
(Cohen’s d)
Comparisons time since transplantation, p
(Cohen’s d)
GroupTimeTime since transplantationG1
(n=216)
G2
(n=216)
F (1, 213)
(p)
F (2, 213)
(p)
F (2, 213)
(p)
Less aMedium bMore ca-ba-cb-ca-ba-cb-c
Relating to others23.081
(<0.001)
1.464
(0.234)
0.236
(0.790)
0.008
(0.32)
s
0.020
(0.30)
s
0.001
(0.46)
s
1.000
(−0.02)
n
0.270
(−0.29)
s
0.369
(−0.27)
s
1.000
(−0.05)
n
0.908
(−0.17)
n
1.000
(−0.12)
n
New possibilities33.157
(<0.001)
0.640
(0.528)
0.003
(0.997)
0.001
(0.36)
s
0.001
(0.42)
s
0.001
(0.45)
s
1.000
(−0.03)
n
0.987
(−0.16)
n
1.000
(−0.14)
n
1.000
(−0.02)
n
1.000
(−0.14)
n
1.000
(−0.12)
n
Personal strength0.001
(0.976)
0.424
(0.655)
0.744
(0.476)
0.425
(−0.10)
n
0.868
(−0.02)
n
0.365
(0.13)
n
1.000
(−0.10)
n
0.438
(−0.24)
s
1.000
(−0.14)
n
1.000
(−0.02)
n
1.000
(−0.01)
n
1.000
(0.01)
n
Spiritual change0.001
(0.975)
2.192
(0.114)
0.349
(0.706)
0.898
(0.02)
n
0.537
(−0.08)
n
0.584
(0.07)
n
1.000
(0.04)
n
0.227
(−0.29)
s
0.143
(−0.37)
s
1.000
(−0.06)
n
0.529
(−0.22)
s
0.960
(−0.17)
n
Appreciation of life18.490
(<0.001)
0.109
(0.897)
0.067
(0.935)
0.006
(0.37)
s
0.028
(0.33)
s
0.014
(0.35)
s
1.000
(−0.02)
n
1.000
(−0.02)
n
1.000
(0.00)
n
1.000
(−0.09)
n
1.000
(−0.06)
n
1.000
(0.03)
n
Total post-traumatic growth17.109
(<0.001)
0.983
(0.376)
0.196
(0.822)
0.028
(0.25)
s
0.041
(0.26)
s
0.004
(0.38)
s
1.000
(−0.04)
n
0.417
(−0.24)
s
0.674
(−0.21)
s
1.000
(−0.05)
n
1.000
(−0.14)
n
1.000
(−0.09)
n
  • a, less; b, medium; c, more; n, null effect size; s, small effect size.