Table 1

Levels where elements that can influence the implementation of community pharmacy services can exist (adapted from McLeroy et al 28)

Individual patientInfluential elements related to the personal characteristics and ideas concerning individual patients (ie, individual determinants), such as their knowledge, beliefs and skills, that can affect their utilisation of community pharmacy services.
InterpersonalInfluential elements related to the healthcare providers and non-healthcare personnel (ie, individual determinants) who are involved with the community pharmacy service and with whom patients associate (eg, family, friends, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants, GPs and nurses) and the formal and informal relationships between patients and healthcare professionals and healthcare professionals with other healthcare professionals.
OrganisationalInfluential elements related to characteristics of the community pharmacy setting and their decision processes, and attributes of the community pharmacy service that can influence the success of implementation.
Community and systemInfluential elements related to the larger society (ie, environmental determinants), which consists of collectives of people in a geographical location, the relationships between organisations, the political players in the system and the rules, regulations and policies that have the power to control and/or influence the implementation of services.