Table 2

Univariate analysis of STDR risk factors (n=12 621)

VariablenNone-STDR
(n=10 875)
nSTDR
(n=1746)
pOR95% CI
Male gender, n (%)10 8754985 (45.8)1746799 (45.8)0.952
Age, years (SD)10 87362.7 (10.2)174560.4 (9.7) <0.001
 <30, %3288.9411.1
 30–40, % (vs <30)18185.03215.00.7571.1280.526 to 2.423
 40–50, % (vs 30–40)92781.920518.10.4691.1210.823 to 1.527
 50–60, % (vs 40–50)278582.957617.10.5421.0040.908 to 1.201
 60–70, % (vs 50–60)425386.964313.1 <0.001 0.7460.680 to 0.819
>70, % (vs 60–70)216088.927011.1 <0.001 0.7280.655 to 0.808
Diagnosis age, years (SD)10 87355.4 (10.4)174549.4 (10.4) <0.001
Diabetes duration, years (SD)10 8757.2 (6.2)174611.0 (6.8) <0.001
 <5, %469280.0117420.0
 5–10, % (vs <5)231465.7120834.3 <0.001 2.0861.898 to 2.293
 10–15, % (vs 5–10)103257.676142.4 <0.001 1.4131.257 to 1.587
 15–20, % (vs 10–15)52148.256051.8 <0.001 1.4581.252 to 1.696
 >20, % (vs 15–20)21345.225854.80.2811.1270.907 to 1.400
BMI (SD)751824.8 (3.6)125624.8 (3.9)0.738
 Underweight12081.12818.9
 Normal weight, %
 (vs underweight)
414585.570314.50.1340.7270.478 to 1.105
 Overweight, %
 (vs normal weight)
275986.642813.40.1770.9150.804 to 1.041
 Obese, %
 (vs overweight)
49483.69716.40.0541.2660.995 to 1.610
SBP, mm Hg (SD)10 863133.8 (16.7)1741138.1 (18.7) <0.001
DBP, mm Hg (SD)10 86379.8 (10.0)174181.0 (11.4) <0.001
Normal BP, %616488.282611.8
 BP level 1, %
 (vs normal BP)
358485.063015.0 <0.001 1.3121.173 to 1.467
 BP level 2, %
 (vs BP level 1)
89280.521619.5 <0.001 1.3781.161 to 1.635
 BP level 3, %
 (vs BP level 2)
22376.46923.60.1181.2780.939 to 1.739
Waistline, cm (SD)717689.4 (10.1)120090.7 (10.8) <0.001
Hipline, cm (SD)717696.7 (9.6)120097.2 (10.1)0.120
WHR (SD)71760.926 (0.073)12000.934 (0.071) 0.001
 Abdominal obesity, n (%)5872 (81.8)1004 (83.7)0.1241.1130.970 to 1.276
Female (SD)39470.92 (0.075)6660.93 (0.074) <0.001
Male (SD)32290.94 (0.069)5340.94 (0.065)0.634
Medicine73041218 <0.001
 No medicine, %72793.7496.3
 Oral medicine, %
 (vs no medicine)
400889.646510.4 <0.001 2.9081.982 to 4.267
 Insulin, %
 (vs oral medicine)
256978.072422.0 <0.001 2.4292.140 to 2.757
FBG, mmol/L (SD)94518.0 (2.5)15218.9 (3.1) <0.001
PBG, mmol/L (SD)596410.9 (3.3)88611.9 (3.6) <0.001
HbA1c, % (SD)95487.25 (1.70)12808.05 (1.97) <0.001
BUN, mmol/L (SD)78555.89 (9.38)10726.38 (4.99)0.092
Cr, μmol/L (SD)781276.2 (102.1)106084.2 (52.3) 0.012
Cholesterol, mmol/L (SD)79275.05 (2.48)10795.06 (1.29)0.904
Triglyceride, mmol/L (SD)78841.87 (1.22)10721.94 (1.29)0.072
HDL, mmol/L (SD)78971.37 (0.56)10741.38 (0.54)0.755
LDL, mmol/L (SD)79072.74 (0.99)10722.82 (1.06) 0.015
  • p<0.05 was considered statistically significant and marked in bold.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood glucose; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Cr, creatinine; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose;  HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; n, number; PBG, postprandial blood glucose; SBP, systolic blood pressure; STDR, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy; WHR, waist–hip ratio.