Table 3

Univariable and multivariable regression analysis results: factors related to risks to competence and to supports to competence

 Factor Risks to competence Supports to competence Univariable analysis OR (95% CI), p value Multivariable analysis* OR (95% CI), p value Univariable analysis OR (95% CI), p value Multivariable analysis* OR (95% CI), p value Country† Canada 1.09 (0.75 to 1.59), p=0.65 — 1.08 (0.67 to 1.72), p=0.76 — Other (ref) — — — — Year of publication‡ 1.01 (1.00 to 1.03), p=0.15 — 1.00 (0.98 to 1.01), p=0.62 — Competence life-cycle Non-physician 0.36 (0.23 to 0.54), p<0.001 0.47 (0.30 to 0.73), p=0.001 2.48 (1.39 to 4.41), p=0.002 1.88 (1.03 to 3.43), p=0.04 Field based§ 1.35 (0.82 to 2.21), p=0.24 — 0.56 (0.33 to 0.96), p=0.03 0.69 (0.40 to 1.20), p=0.19 Resident§ 2.02 (1.54 to 2.65), p<0.001 1.70 (1.28 to 2.25), p<0.001 0.49 (0.36 to 0.67), p<0.001 0.56 (0.40 to 0.78), p=0.001 Practising§ 0.92 (0.71 to 1.19), p=0.51 — 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75), p=0.13 — CanMEDS role§ Medical Expert 0.88 (0.68 to 1.14), p=0.32 — 0.96 (0.70 to 1.32), p=0.80 — Communicator 0.74 (0.50 to 1.09), p=0.13 — 2.21 (1.24 to 3.95), p=0.007 2.22 (1.24 to 3.99), p=0.008 Collaborator 0.69 (0.38 to 1.24), p=0.21 — 2.44 (0.96 to 6.23), p=0.06 — Manager 0.89 (0.43 to 1.85), p=0.76 — 0.89 (0.38 to 2.10), p=0.80 — Health advocate 0.67 (0.32 to 1.42), p=0.30 — 1.79 (0.62 to 5.19), p=0.28 — Scholar 0.33 (0.18 to 0.62) p=0.01 0.39 (0.21 to 0.75), p=0.005 2.01 (0.90 to 4.5), p=0.09 — Professional 1.12 (0.72 to 1.74), p=0.61 — 0.89 (0.53 to 1.51), p=0.67 —
• *As the multivariable analyses were informed by univariable analyses, the reference category for the category of interest consists of all other categories within the same variable. For the variable of ‘competence life-cycle’, ‘field based’ and ‘practising’ categories were not included in the multivariable model, as the ‘field based’ and ‘practising’ life-cycles were not statistically significant in the univariable analysis.

• †For the ‘country’ variable, ‘Canada’ and ‘other’ were treated as binary variables.

• ‡Year of publication was treated as a continuous variable.

• §The variables of ‘competency life-cycle’ and and‘CanMEDS roles’ were each treated as separate dummy-coded binary variables.

• ¶Reference categories: For ‘non-physicians’ in the risk to competence multivariable analysis, the reference category is all physicians who are not ‘non-physicians’. For ‘resident’ in the risk to competence multivariable analysis, the reference category is all physicians who are not ‘residents’. For CanMEDS roles in the risk to competence multivariable analysis, the reference group for ‘Scholar’ is all Roles that are not ‘Scholar’. For ‘non-physicians’, ‘field-based’ physicians and ‘resident’ physicians in the supports to competence multivariable analysis, the reference category is ‘practising’ physicians. For CanMEDS roles in the supports to competence multivariable analysis, the reference group for ‘Communicator’ is all roles that are not ‘Communicator’.

• Ref, reference category.