Table 1

Univariate analysis of DR risk factors (n=12 733)

VariablenNo DR
(n=8772)
nDR
(n=3961)
pOR95% CI
Male gender, n (%)87723985 (45.4)39611851 (46.7)0.172
Age, years (SD)877063.0 (10.3)395961.0 (9.8) <0.001
 <30, %1130.62569.4
 30–40, % (vs <30)14366.87133.20.7571.1280.526 to 2.423
 40–50, % (vs 30–40)73364.240835.80.4691.1210.823 to 1.527
 50–60, % (vs 40–50)213863.2124336.80.5421.0040.908 to 1.201
 60–70, % (vs 50–60)344369.7149430.3 <0.001 0.7460.680 to 0.819
 >70, % (vs 60–70)221776.070024.0 <0.001 0.7280.655 to 0.808
Diagnosis age, years (SD)877056.3 (10.2)395950.8 (10.3) <0.001
Diabetes duration, years (SD)87726.7 (5.9)396110.2 (6.8) <0.001
 <5, %469280.0117420.0
 5–10, % (vs <5)231465.7120834.3 <0.001 2.0861.898 to 2.293
 10–15, % (vs 5–10)103257.676142.4 <0.001 1.4131.257 to 1.587
 15–20, % (vs 10–15)52148.256051.8 <0.001 1.4581.252 to 1.696
 >20, % (vs 15–20)21345.225854.80.2811.1270.907 to 1.400
BMI (SD)600024.7 (3.5)285424.9 (3.9)0.116
 Underweight, %9764.75335.3
 Normal weight, %
 (vs underweight)
334868.5154331.50.3260.8430.600 to 1.185
 Overweight, %
 (vs normal weight)
217567.6104332.40.4141.0410.946 to 1.145
 Obese, %
 (vs overweight)
38063.921536.10.0761.1800.983 to 1.417
SBP, mm Hg (SD)8762133.3 (16.5)3952137.0 (17.9) <0.001
DBP, mm Hg (SD)876279.6 (9.9)395280.8 (10.8) <0.001
 Normal BP, %508472.3195027.7
 BP level 1, %
 (vs normal)
284066.7142033.3 <0.001 1.3031.200 to 1.414
 BP level 2, %
 (vs level 1)
66559.345640.7 <0.001 1.3711.198 to 1.569
 BP level 3, %
 (vs level 2)
17357.912642.10.6481.0620.820 to 1.376
Waistline, cm (SD)571989.3 (10.1)273590.3 (10.6) <0.001
Hipline, cm (SD)571996.6 (9.7)273597.1 (9.5) 0.028
WHR (SD)57190.926 (0.074)27350.930 (0.069) 0.007
Abdominal obesity, n (%)4677 (81.8)2267 (82.9)0.2131.0790.957 to 1.217
 Female (SD)31520.915 (0.076)15010.923 (0.072) 0.002
 Male (SD)25670.94 (0.070)12340.94 (0.064)0.674
Medicine57932797 <0.001
 No medicine, %66087.09913.0
 Oral medicine, %
 (vs no medicine)
329673.2120826.8 <0.001 5.4074.331 to 6.752
 Insulin, %
 (vs oral medicine)
183755.2149044.8 <0.001 2.2132.013 to 2.434
FBG, mmol/L (SD)75477.8 (2.4)35178.7 (3.0) <0.001
PBG, mmol/L (SD)478010.7 (3.3)209511.8 (3.5) <0.001
HbA1c, % (SD)77627.16 (1.65)31467.82 (1.90) <0.001
BUN, mmol/L (SD)63575.79 (8.19)26336.33 (10.51) 0.01
Cr, μmol/L (SD)632076.5 (112.7)261578.8 (39.2)0.328
Cholesterol, mmol/L (SD)64185.04 (2.69)26515.06 (1.31)0.752
Triglyceride, mmol/L (SD)63821.87 (1.22)26351.89 (1.26)0.456
HDL, mmol/L (SD)63921.37 (0.56)26421.38 (0.57)0.481
LDL, mmol/L (SD)63992.72 (1.00)26432.83 (1.00) <0.001
  • Continuous variables were reported as mean value and SD, and categorical variables were reported as percentage, OR and 95% CI.  p<0.05 was considered statistically significant and marked in bold.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood glucose; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Cr, creatinine; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DR, diabetic retinopathy; FBG, fasting blood glucose;  HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; n, number; PBG, postprandial blood glucose; SBP, systolic blood pressure; WHR, waist–hip ratio.