Table 1

Selected characteristics of the 83 studies included in this systematic review and meta-analysis

StudySpecialtyDisease categoryCountryMean age
(SD)
Time point
(year, month)
Study
design
Diagnostic methodDepression prevalence %
(cases/participants)
NOS
Rohani et al53Internal medicineCardiologyIran50.4 (NR)April 2010–November 2010Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS31.0% (78/250)5
Bokemeyer et al54Internal medicineGastroenterologyGermany43 (NR)March 2006–July 2007Descriptive cross-sectionalSF-3614.9% (154/1032)4
Tedeschini et al55Internal medicineRheumatologyItaly53.7 (12.1)February 2005–July 2007Descriptive cross-sectionalBDI46.2% (36/78)4
Yohannes et al56Internal medicinePulmonary diseaseUK73 (NR)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalGMS, MADRS, 
BASDEC
42.0% (57/137)4
Yohannes et al57Internal medicinePulmonary diseaseUK78 (5)NRControlled cross-sectionalBASDEC46.0% (44/96)3
Noh et al58Internal medicineEndocrinologyKorea52.7 (12.2)March 2003–October 2003Controlled cross-sectionalBDI32.4% (66/204)5
Janke et al59Internal medicineGastroenterologyGermany43.2 (11.0)January 1997–December 2000Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS10.2% (43/429)4
Zhang et al60Internal medicineInternal medicineChina44.4 (16.5)July 2011–June 2012Descriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-99.2% (37/404)4
He et al*61Internal medicineCardiologyChina40.1 (17.3)April 2007–July 2007Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS, GHQ-1526.7% (140/524)4
He et al*61Internal medicineGastroenterologyChina40.1 (17.3)April 2007–July 2007Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS, GHQ-1526.9% (181/674)4
Pontone et al62Internal medicineGastroenterologyItaly53.3 (17)May 2009–October 2010Descriptive cross-sectionalBDI17.2% (22/130)3
Urrutia et al63Internal medicinePulmonary diseaseSpain44.25 (16.77)December 2006–December 2007Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS1.7% (6/354)3
Zhang et al64Internal medicineEndocrinologyChina55.1 (9.5)July 2010–July 2011Descriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-918.3% (107/586)4
Birket-Smith et al65Internal medicineCardiologyDenmark67.4 (13.63)2011Descriptive cross-sectionalDSM-III-R, HAMD19.7% (17/86)4
Hajduk et al66Internal medicineRheumatologyPoland43.79 (11.66)2009–2013Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS-M35.8% (19/53)4
Qin et al67Internal medicineInternal medicineChina48.1 (17.7)November 2004–January 2006Descriptive cross-sectionalGHQ SI34.6% (495/1428)4
Inagaki et al68Internal medicineInternal medicineJapan75 (NR)July 2010Descriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-99.0% (36/396)5
Schaefert et al69Internal medicineInternal medicineGermany43.2 (14.2)August 2009–October 2009Descriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-15, HADS4.6% (13/281)3
Addolorato et al70Internal medicineGastroenterologyItaly43.9 (15.9)1997–2015Descriptive cross-sectionalZUNG SDS27.0% (442/1641)4
Pouwer et al71Internal medicineEndocrinologyNetherlands43(14)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalCESD33.6% (243/724)5
Su et al72Internal medicineNephrologyChina59.8 (11.9)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalBDI40.3% (129/320)5
Xiong et al73Internal medicineInternal medicineChina44.9 (16.4)February 2011–October 2012Descriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-9, MINI38.3% (188/491)5
Tsunoda et al74OncologyColorectal cancerJapan69 (10.5)1994–2005Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS36.7% (47/128)4
Polidoro Lima and Osório75OncologyOncologyBrazil50.3 (13.9)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-418.6% (257/1385)4
Alcalar, N et al76OncologyBreast cancerTurkey48.32 (8.46)September 2008–April 2009Descriptive cross-sectionalBDI30.9% (34/110)3
Jehn et al77OncologyMetastatic breast cancerGermany59.9 (10.2)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalHADS31.4% (22/70)4
Qiu et al78OncologyPostsurgery breast cancerChina52.02 (4.55)January 2008–March 2009Descriptive cross-sectionalBDI, HAMD, 
MINI
18.8% (95/505)4
Reuter et al6OncologyGynaecological and  breast cancerGermany54 (19.81)May 1998–June 2000Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS15.2% (10/66)3
Diniz et al79SurgeryRenal colicBrazil43.8 (14.4)June 2003–October 2003Controlled cross-sectionalBDI59.4% (19/32)4
Hung et al80SurgeryOrthopaedicsChina40.7 (11.4)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalHADS21.8% (49/225)4
Jung et al81SurgeryChronic peritoneal dialysisKorea54.2 (10.24)July 2009–October 2009Descriptive cross-sectionalBDI35.7% (20/56)4
Weisbord et al82SurgeryChronic haemodialysisUSA64 (NR)2009–2011Descriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-925.5% (73/286)4
Bixo et al83OGGynaecologySweden43.8 (14.3)November 1998–December 1998Descriptive cross-sectionalPRIME-MD27.2% (208/766)4
Gaillard et al84OGPostpartumFrance31 (NR)November 2007–November 2009Descriptive cross-sectionalEPDS16.7% (44/264)4
Lorencatto et al*85OGEndometriosis with chronic pelvic painBrazil35.3 (6.4)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalBDI86.0% (43/50)4
Lorencatto et al*85OGEndometriosis without chronic pelvic painBrazil32.8 (7.1)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalBDI38.0% (19/50)4
Poleshuck et al86OGGynaecologyUSA32.1 (NR)March 2004–December 2004Descriptive cross-sectionalBDI21.8% (51/234)4
He et al*61OGGynaecologyChina40.1 (17.3)April 2007–July 2007Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS, GHQ-1518.6% (103/554)4
Wang et al87OGMenopauseChinaNR2004Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS11.1% (34/306)2
Wojnar et al88OGGynaecologyPoland49.85 (3.09)May 2001–October 2001Descriptive cross-sectionalBDI, ICD-1019.5% (442/2262)4
Stewart et al89PaediatricsT1DMUSA13.54 (1.56)December 2001–May 2003Descriptive cross-sectionalCESD30.0% (62/205)3
Zdunczyk et al90PaediatricsT1DMPoland14.2 (2.0)October 2011–November 2012Descriptive cross-sectionalCDI19.4% (72/372)4
Winter et al91PaediatricsPaediatricsUSA13.89 (1.58)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalBDI-PC11.0% (11/100)3
Carson et al52NeurologyNeurologyUK43.4 (NR)2003Analytical Cohort-studyHADS, PRIME-MD39.7% (119/300)4
Carson et al92NeurologyNeurologyUK43 (16.2)November 1997–March 1998Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS, PRIME-MD33.3% (100/300)4
de Oliveira et al93NeurologyTemporal lobe epilepsyBrazil40.7 (10.1)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalHAMD35.4% (34/96)4
Dickstein et al*94NeurologyEpilepsyUSA48 (17)October 2007–August 2013Descriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-936.3% (1003/2763)4
Dickstein et al*94NeurologyMultiple sclerosisUSA51 (12)October 2007–August 2013Descriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-939.4% (1507/3823)4
He et al*61NeurologyNeurologyChina40.1 (17.3)April 2007–July 2007Descriptive cross-sectionalHADS, GHQ-1530.7% (216/704)4
Mao et al*95NeurologyParkinson’s diseaseChinaNRAugust 2010–June 2011Descriptive cross-sectionalHAMD56.2% (68/121)2
Mao et al*95NeurologyEssential tremorChinaNRJuly 2009–June 2010Descriptive cross-sectionalHAMD53.2% (33/62)2
Mitsikostas and Thomas96NeurologyHeadacheGreece41 (7)2007Controlled cross-sectionalHAMD3.4% (16/470)4
Vogel et al97NeurologySystemic lupus erythematosusDenmark41.8 (9.6)2010Descriptive cross-sectionalMDI22.8% (13/57)4
Williams et al98NeurologyNeurologyUSA51.1 (21)January 2001–August 2001Descriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-933.3% (161/483)5
Worku et al99NeurologyParkinson’s diseaseUSA57.10 (10.84)June 2013–November 2013Descriptive cross-sectionalQIDS-C1657.4% (58/101)4
Attah Johnson and Mostaghimi100DermatologyNeurodermatitisPapua New GuineaNR1992Descriptive cross-sectionalSRQ50.7% (67/132)4
Balieva et al101DermatologyDermatologyNorway50.1 (17.7)November 2011–February 2013Controlled cross-sectionalHDRS13.3% (77/577)5
Hon et al102DermatologyAtopic eczemaChina16.0 (NR)May 2012–October 2012Controlled cross-sectionalDASS-42, BDI20.8% (25/120)4
Mattoo et al*103DermatologyVitiligoIndia30.11 (12.49)March 1998–September 1999Controlled cross-sectionalGHQ, CPRS22.1% (25/113)4
Mattoo et al*103DermatologyPsoriasisIndia40.91 (14.26)March 1998–September 1999Controlled cross-sectionalGHQ, CPRS29.1% (30/103)4
Rasoulian et al104DermatologyDermatologyIranNRSeptember 2007–December 2007Controlled cross-sectionalHADS70.1% (101/144)4
Roca et al105DermatologySclerodermaUSANRNRDescriptive cross-sectionalBDI64.8% (35/54)3
Singh et al106DermatologyPsoriasisIndiaNRJanuary 2013–November 2013Descriptive cross-sectionalPHQ-939.4% (41/104)3
Tsintsadze et al107DermatologySkin diseasesUkraineNRNRDescriptive cross-sectionalHDRS56.2% (119/211)5
Daaleman et al108Primary careNRUSA57 (NR)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalZUNG2.9% (15/509)4
Drayer et al109Primary careHaemodialysisUSA61.6 (12.6)July 2002–June 2003Descriptive cross-sectionalPRIME-MD,
PHQ-9
27.4% (17/62)4
Hankin et al110Primary careNRUSANRJune 1993–May 1995Descriptive cross-sectionalCESD31.3% (676/2160)5
Hollifield et al111Primary careNRJapan50.5 (19.3)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalN.I.M.H.D23.0% (29/126)2
Ishikawa et al112Primary careNRUSA40.2 (13.4)January 2012–June 2012Descriptive cross-sectionalICPC-22.4% (29/1194)4
Michalski et al113Primary careNRJapanNRNRDescriptive cross-sectionalDSM-III-R, BDI5.7% (40/698)4
Okumura et al114Primary careHeadacheFrance45 (NR)April 2005–March 2009Descriptive cross-sectionalDSM-IV8.4% (35/418)5
Rondet et al115Primary careNRUSANRSeptember 2010–December 2010Descriptive cross-sectionalStructure interview56.7% (142/250)4
Steer et al116Primary careNRUSANRNRDescriptive cross-sectionalBDI24.2% (29/120)4
Tamburrino et al117Primary careNRUSA42.7 (NR)1996–1998Descriptive cross-sectionalPRIME-MD PQ27.3% (478/1752)5
Mancuso et al118Primary carePulmonary diseaseUK41 (11)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalGDS45.2% (104/230)5
Lee et al119OphthalmologyEye diseaseUSANRJanuary 2001–March 2011Descriptive cross-sectionalStructured interview20.0% (10/50)4
Rovner et al120OphthalmologyARMDUSA81.2 (5.8)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalHDRS23.7% (49/206)5
Evans et al121OphthalmologyEye diseaseUK81.2 (4.8)NRControlled cross-sectionalGDS-1513.5% (235/1742)4
Brody et al122OphthalmologyARMDUSA80.11 (6.21)January 1998–September 1999Descriptive cross-sectionalGDS, SI32.5% (49/151)4
Mathew et al123OphthalmologyARMDAustralia78.0 (7.7)December 2001–July 2005Controlled cross-sectionalGAD44.4% (64/145)3
Popescu et al124OphthalmologyARMD, FCD, glaucomaCanada80.5 (7.5)September 2009–December 2011Controlled cross-sectionalGDS-1524.8% (78/315)4
Goto et al125E.N.T.OtolaryngologyJapan53.7 (18.9)January 2006–December 2006Descriptive cross-sectionalSDS54.4% (49/90)4
Asghari et al126E.N.T.OSASIran47.63 (11.73)August 2008–December 2012Descriptive cross-sectionalBDI41.3% (293/685)4
Lee et al127E.N.T.Empty nose syndromeChina51.6 (NR)2012–2014Analytical cohort-studyBDI71.4% (15/21)4
Olley et al128Infectious diseaseHIV/AIDSSouth AfricaNRNRDescriptive cross-sectionalMINI34.9% (52/149)4
Kolaric et al129Infectious diseaseHIV/AIDSCroatia39 (NR)March 2003–April 2003Controlled cross-sectionalBDI20.0% (16/80)3
Chan et al130Infectious diseaseHBVChina47.2 (11.9)October 2008–June 2009Descriptive cross-sectionalGHQ17.4% (26/149)4
Wright et al131Infectious diseaseHIV/AIDSAustraliaNRJuly 2005–March 2006Descriptive cross-sectionalCES-D36.4% (235/645)4
Judd et al132Infectious diseaseHIV/AIDSAustralia44.7 (9.1)NRDescriptive cross-sectionalBDI34.8% (45/129)3
  • *Studies that extracted different data from the same research.

  • ARMD, age-related macular degeneration; BASDEC, Brief Assessment Schedule Depression Cards; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CES-D, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CIDI, Composite International Diagnostic Interview; CPRS, Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale; DASS-42, Chinese versions of the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales; DSM, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition); E.N.T., otorhinolaryngology department (ear, nose, throat); EPDS, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; FCD, Fuchs Corneal Dystrophy; GADS, Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HDRS, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; ICPC-2, International Classification of Primary Care, Second Edition; MADRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale; MDI, Major Depression Inventory; MINI, MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview; N.I.M.H.D, N.I.M.H. Diagnostic Interview Schedule; NOS, Newcastle-Ottawa Score; NR, not reported; OG, obstetrics and gynaecology; OSAS, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; PHQ-15, 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire; PRIME-MD PQ, Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Questionnaire; QIDS-C16, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology; SDS, Self-Rating Depression Scale; SF-36, Short F; SRQ, Self-Rating Questionnaire; T1DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus; WHO-5, World Health Organization-5 Well-Being Index.