Table 1

Mean cumulative incremental outcomes per person given the intervention in England

Year 1
2016/2017
Year 2 2017/2018Year 3 2018/2019Year 4 2019/2020Year 5 2020/2021Year 10 2025/2026Year 15 2030/2031Year 20
2035/2036
Total costs £240 £218 £195 £173 £150 £23  –£43 –£75
  DPP costs £270 £270 £270 £270 £270 £270 £270 £270
  NHS costs –£30 –£52 –£75 –£97 –£120 –£247 –£313 –£345
  Diabetes treatment £1 £3 –£6 –£9 –£17 –£79 –£106 –£115
   CVD treatment £11 £18 –£25 –£32 –£37 –£56 –£65 –£69
  Microvascular complications* –£1 –£3 –£5 –£7 –£10 –£27 –£46 –£60
  Other complications† –£2 –£5 –£8 –£12 –£15 –£30 –£40 –£45
  Diagnostics‡ –£4 –£4 –£5 –£5 –£4 –£3 –£2 –£2
  Other primary care§ –£11 –£19 –£26 –£32 –£37 –£52 –£54 –£54
Life-years¶ 6 41 130 281 486 1795 2838 3487
QALYs¶ 50 133 269 457 686 1986 2966 3552
Diabetes cases¶ −1043 −1995 −3000 −3788 −4147 −1812 −766 −654
CVD cases¶ –183 −273 −344 −396 −413 −394 −325 −282
ICER (£/QALY) £475 625 £163 636 £72 715 £37 870 £21 860 £1162 –£1446 –£2120
Net monetary benefit** –£209 –£138 –£34 £101 £262 £1169 £1822 £2207
RoI: total savings†† £0.11 £0.19 £0.28 £0.36 £0.44 £0.91 £1.16 £1.28
RoI: NMB†† £0.22 £0.49 £0.87 £1.37 £1.97 £5.33 £7.75 £9.17
  • Costs and cost-ineffective returns are shown in italic whereas savings and cost-effective returns are shown in bold. Costs are discounted at 3.5% whereas QALYs are discounted at 1.5%.

  • *Includes costs of nephropathy, ulcer, amputation and retinopathy.

  • †Includes costs of osteoarthritis, depression, breast and colon cancer.

  • ‡Diagnosis of diabetes, high CVD risk and hypertension.

  • §Includes costs of GP visits and prescription of statins and anti-hypertensives.

  • ¶Per 100 000 individuals given the DPP intervention.

  • **Value of a QALY assumed to be £60 000 for net monetary benefit analysis.17

  • ††Return on investment per £1 invested in the DPP.

  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; DPP, diabetes prevention programme; GP, general practitioner; ICER, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio; NHS, National Health Service; NMB, net monetary benefit; RoI, return on investment; QALY, quality-adjusted life-year.