Table 1

Trial and intervention characteristics

StudyIntervention descriptionUnderlying frameworkSupport network involved and roleIntervention deliverer(s)Setting where intervention was deliveredLength (months)Intervention contact time (min)
Wing et al 21 Behavioural weight loss programme with calorie restrictionBehavioural marital therapySpouse; participated in intervention, spouse support for modifying diet and exercise habitsStaff and physiciansNR5960
Brown et al 22 Instructional and support group emphasising nutrition, monitoring and self-careNRClose family member or close friend; participated in interventionClinicians and community health workersCommunity12120
Pearce et al 42 Individualised patient education sessions and newslettersHealth belief modelRelative or friend; joined participant for education sessionNurse practitioner educatorCommunity and telephone12NR
Samuel- Hodge et al 43 Individualised counselling, group education sessions and phone contactBehaviour change and adult educationChurch community; building community support systemsChurch diabetes advisor (CDA) and a health professionalCommunity and telephone121140–1500
Kang et al 23 Individualised counselling, group education sessions and phone contactNRHousehold family member; participate in intervention, dyad also received an education plan based on their needsClinicians and social workersHospital and telephone6450
Keogh et al 24 Individualised sessions to modify diabetes perceptions and develop action plansSelf-regulation of health and illnessFamily member; participated in intervention, tailored to dyadPsychologistHome0.75100
Toobert et al 26 Group sessions based on education and problem-solvingNRFamily members; participate in family nightsGroup leaderCommunityNRNR
Trief et al 25 Diabetes education, goal setting and collaborative problem solvingSocial learning theorySpouse/partner: participated in couples’ calls to promote collaborative problem-solvingDiabetes educator and marriage/family therapistTelephone3NR
Haltiwanger et al 27 Diabetes education group sessionsNRSpouse; participated in interventionHealth educatorNR2720
Khosravizade et al 30 Individualised education; focus on medication adherence and family support behaviourNRHousehold family member; attended small group sessions for family membersResearchersNR3NR
Shaya et al 28 Education sessions and team building exercisesEducation and medication therapy managementPeers; participated in intervention which included team-buildingNurse practitioner educatorCommunity6NR
Sorkin et al 29 Group sessions, home visits and booster phone callsLifestyle changesDaughter; participated in intervention, dyadic collaboration encouragedLifestyle community coachCommunity, home and telephone4NR
Greene et al 33 Diabetes self-management educationNRHousehold family member or companion; participated in interventionUnclearNR23120
Baig et al 36 Group education classes focused on nutrition, physical activity and behavioural problem solvingSocial cognitive theory, the transtheoretical model, and self-determination theoryChurch community; community based participatory studyLay leadersCommunity2720
Kasteleyn et al 31 Home visits with individualised education sessionsSelf-efficacySpouse/partner; attended sessionsDiabetes nurse practitionerHome2155
Trief et al 38 Telephone calls with education and behavioural strategies with spouseInterdependence theory and social learning theorySpouse/partner; participated in intervention and phone calls based collaborative problem-solving and interdependenceDiabetes educator or counsellorTelephone3720
McEwen et al 40 Family-based T2DM social support interventionFamily social capitalFamily members; participated in interventionCertified diabetes educator nurseCommunity, home and telephone31140
Samuel-Hodge et al 37 Group-based sessions focusing on group sharing and problem solvingSocial interdependence and social support theoriesFamily member; participated in interventionRegistered dietitiansUniversity52400
Wichit et al 39 Group-based education sessions using workbooksSelf-efficacy theoryHousehold family member; participated in interventionRegistered nurseDiabetes clinic3360
  • NR, not reported; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.