Table 2

Adjusted multilevel analysis of characteristics associated with hypertension (OR (95% CI))

CharacteristicsIndividual level*Individual +
company level†
Individual + company +
population level‡
Gender
 Women1.001.001.00
 Men2.68 (2.18 to 3.29)2.71 (2.19 to 3.35)2.78 (2.24 to 3.46)
p Value<0.001<0.001<0.001
Age (years)
 15–291.001.001.00
 30–391.61 (1.32 to 1.96)1.75 (1.42 to 2.14)1.71 (1.38 to 2.11)
 40–492.80 (2.30 to 3.42)2.98 (2.43 to 3.66)2.93 (2.38 to 3.62)
 50–767.20 (5.65 to 9.17)8.31 (6.47 to 10.69)8.24 (6.37 to 10.65)
p Value<0.001<0.001<0.001
Years at school
 0–41.51 (1.18 to 1.94)1.51 (1.16 to 1.96)1.48 (1.13 to 1.93)
 5–81.58 (1.25 to 1.98)1.45 (1.14 to 1.84)1.43 (1.12 to 1.82)
 9–111.16 (0.92 to 1.46)1.17 (0.92 to 1.48)1.12 (0.88 to 1.43)
 >111.001.001.00
p Value<0.0010.0030.004
Physical activity
 Low1.11 (0.90 to 1.38)1.09 (0.88 to 1.36)1.07 (0.85 to 1.34)
 Moderate0.96 (0.82 to 1.13)0.94 (0.80 to 1.11)0.95 (0.810 to 1.13)
 High1.001.001.00
p Value0.50.40.6
Abusive alcohol consumption
 No1.001.001.00
 Yes1.58 (1.22 to 2.06)1.54 (1.17 to 2.02)1.62 (1.22 to 2.16)
p Value0.0010.0020.001
Current smoking
 No1.001.001.00
 Yes1.13 (0.94 to 1.37)1.08 (0.89 to 1.32)1.06 (0.87 to 1.29)
p Value0.190.40.6
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 <18.51.001.001.00
 18.5–24.91.49 (0.67 to 2.32)1.46 (0.68 to 3.13)1.48 (0.69 to 3.19)
 25.0–29.93.19 (2.37 to 4.02)3.13 (1.46 to 6.69)3.26 (1.52 to 7.02)
 ≥30.06.01 (5.18 to 6.85)5.83 (2.69 to 12.65)5.76 (2.63 to 12.59)
p Value<0.001<0.001<0.001
On-site staff canteen
 Yes1.001.00
 No1.31 (1.11 to 1.54)1.28 (1.08 to 1.52)
p Value0.0010.004
Size of company
 Small1.19 (0.99 to 1.44)1.31 (1.07 to 1.60)
 Medium1.12 (0.94 to 1.34)1.06 (0.88 to 1.28)
 Large1.001.00
p Value0.170.02
Number of inhabitants
 <100.0001.00
 ≥100.0001.22 (1.01 to 1.47)
p Value0.04
Gini coefficient
 ≤P501.00
 >P501.47 (1.23 to 1.76)
p Value0.001
  • *OR adjusted for gender, age, years at school and body mass index (BMI).

  • †OR adjusted for gender, age, years at school, BMI, size of company and on-site canteen.

  • ‡OR adjusted for gender, age, years at school, BMI, on-site canteen, size of company, number of inhabitants Gini coefficient above 50th centile.