Table 1

Baseline characteristics, exposures in ICU and outcomes

CategoryVariablesIAH cases (n=121)Non-IAH cases (n=1635)p Value
CharacteristicsAge (years)71 (61–78)69 (58–79)0.38
Male85 (70.3)1016 (62.1)0.075
APACHE-II score19 (13–24)12 (8–18)<0.001*
Main symptom at ICU admissionSepsis45 (37.2)343 (21.0)<0.001*
Respiratory failure46 (38.0)415 (25.4)0.002*
Neurological45 (37.2)501 (30.6)0.13
 CVD33 (27.3)313 (19.1)0.030*
 Non-CVD12 (9.9)188 (11.5)0.60
Acute kidney injury45 (37.2)358 (21.9)<0.001*
Other medical conditions7 (5.8)307 (18.8)<0.001*
InterventionsSurgery prior to ICU admission0.23
 Elective surgery4 (3.3)102 (6.2)
 Emergency surgery26 (21.5)278 (17.0)
Renal replacement therapy11 (9.1)128 (7.8)0.62
Mechanical ventilation86 (71.1)606 (37.1)<0.001*
OutcomesLength of ICU admission (days)9 (5,15)4 (3,6)<0.001*
All-cause hospital mortality56 (46.3)193 (11.9)<0.001*
All-cause 28-day mortality42 (35.0)145 (8.9)<0.001*
  • Continuous data are presented as the median (IQR). Categorical data are presented as n (%).

  • *p<0.05.

  • APACHE, Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation; CVD, cerebrovascular disease; IAH, ICU-acquired hypernatraemia; ICU, intensive care unit.