Table 2

Summary table for non-invasive biomarker candidates and related processes

Process of gut healthBiospecimenNon-invasive biomarkers
Epithelial health and repairFaecesReg1B
Intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocationBlood and urineAlpha-1-antitrypsin, lactulose/rhamnose ratio
Intestinal inflammationFaecesMyeloperoxidase, neopterin, calprotectin
Systemic inflammationBloodsCD14, CRP, AGP, KT ratio
Epigenetic metabolomesBloodLRP1
Enteric infectionFaeces, breath sampleTaqMan Array Card, SIBO
Nutrient malabsorptionBloodFerritin, zinc, GLP-2, pepsinogen I/II ratio
Celiac Disease screeningBloodIgA tissue transglutaminase, total IgA
  • AGP, alpha 1-glycoprotein; CRP, C reactive protein; KT ratio, kynurenine/tryptophan ratio; LRP1, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1; GLP-2, glucagon-like peptide-2; Reg1B, regenerating family member 1 beta proteins; sCD14, soluble cluster of differentiation 14; SIBO, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.