Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the LF-EMS and sham placebo groups

DemographicsLF-EMS (n=30)Sham (n=30)
 Male (n)20 (66%)22 (73%)
 Age (years)66.5±7.866.8±13.5
 Body mass index (kg/m2)30.1±4.927.8±4.8
 Prev MI/PCI/CABG17 (56%)11 (36%)
 Diabetes12 (40%)10 (33%)
 COPD9 (30%)8 (26%)
 AF20 (66%)16 (53%)
 Hypertension13 (43%)10 (33%
 CKD5 (16%)13 (43%)
 NT-pro-BNP (pg/mL)3086±37462046±2545
 Creatinine (mmol/L)108±49113±39
 LVEF %39±11*22±12†
 BPsys (mm Hg)118±16126±17
 BPdia (mm Hg)69±974±14
 NYHA III24 (80%)22 (73%)
 NYHA IV6 (20%)8 (26%)
  • Data presented as mean±SD or absolute number and percent.

  • *n=10. Ejection fraction could not be accurately assessed in all patients due to poor body habitus/atrial fibrillation. An experienced cardiac sonographer made an ‘eyeball’ assessment of poor left ventricular function for all other participants.

  • †n=5. See previous comments.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BPdia (mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure; BPsys (mm Hg), systolic blood pressure; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft surgery; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LF-EMS, low-frequency electrical muscle stimulation; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MI, myocardial infarction; NT-pro-BNP (pg/mL),N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.