Table 1

Characteristics of the study population

Overall (n=452)Women (n=361)Men (n=91)p
General characteristics
 Mean age (years)44.4±9.843.7±9.947.2±8.80.001
 Unmarried, n (%)251 (55.5)227 (62.9)24 (26.4)<0.001
 Secondary education or higher, n (%)289 (63.9)227 (62.9)62 (68.1)0.351
 Urban residence, n (%)381 (84.3)305 (84.5)76 (83.5)0.820
 Unemployed, n (%)219 (48.5)196 (54.3)23 (25.3)<0.001
 Family past history of premature CVD, n (%)46 (10.2)36 (10.0)10 (11.0)0.774
 Tobacco use, n (%)27 (6.0)10 (2.8)17 (18.7)<0.001
 HIV infection
 ART use, n (%)400 (88.5)328 (90.9)72 (79.1)0.002
 Median duration of ART in months (25th–75th percentile)72 (35–108)72.0 (34.0–108.0)74.0 (36.0–106.5)0.971
 First-line treatment, n (%)373/400 (93.3)304/328 (92.7)69/72 (95.8)0.442
 NVP, n (%)78/373 (20.9)67/304 (22.0)11/69 (15.9)0.261
 EFV, n (%)295/373 (79.1)237/304 (78.0)58/69 (84.1)0.261
 PI, n (%)27/400 (6.8)24/328 (7.3)33/72 (4.2)0.442
Clinical characteristics
 Mean systolic blood pressure (mmHg)123.4±22.5122.6±23.0126.5±20.30.120
 Mean diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)81.3±13.581.3±13.681.1±13.20.909
 Hypertension, n (%)60 (13.3)48 (13.3)12 (13.2)0.978
 Mean body mass index (kg/m2)25.8±5.326.2±5.524.0±3.9<0.001
 Obesity, n (%)218 (48.0)188 (52.1)29 (31.9)0.001
 Mean waist circumference (cm)82.1±11.682.3±11.981.0±10.50.303
 Abdominal obesity, n (%)195 (43.1)185 (51.2)10 (11.0)<0.001
 Mean hip circumference (cm)95.1±11.296.0±12.091.4±8.80.001
 Mean waist/hip ratio0.86±0.070.88±0.070.89±0.06<0.001
Biological characteristics
 Median CD4 count (cells/mm3)375 (245–532)375 (245–532)365 (257–504)0.926
 Mean fasting glycaemia (mmol/L)5.1±0.95.1±0.75.2±1.30.236
 Diabetes, n (%)9 (2.0)6 (1.7)3 (3.3)0.318
 Mean total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.5±1.04.5±1.04.3±1.10.238
 Hypercholesterolaemia, n (%)26 (5.8)22 (6.1)4 (4.4)0.534
 Mean HDL-C (mmol/L)1.7±0.61.7±0.61.5±0.60.003
 Low HDL-C, n (%)106 (23.5)85 (23.5)21 (23.1)0.925
 Mean triglycerides (mmol/L)1.0±0.51.0±0.41.1±0.60.012
 Hypertriglyceridaemia, n (%)35 (7.7)25 (6.9)10 (11.0)0.195
 Mean LDL-C (mmol/L)2.3±0.92.3±0.92.3±1.00.788
 High LDL-C, n (%)17 (3.8)13 (3.6)4 (4.4)0.722
 Any dyslipidaemia, n (%)153 (33.8)122 (33.8)31 (34.1)0.961
 Median 5-year CVD risk
 DAD equation0.6% (0.3–1.3)0.5% (0.3–0.9)1.4% (0.8–2.7)<0.001
 Framingham equation0.7% (0.2–2)0.5% (0.2–1.5)1.8% (0.9–4)<0.001
  • Values are count (percentages), mean±SD deviation or median (25th–75th percentiles).

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; CVD, cardiovascular disease; EFV, efavirenz; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; NVRP, nevirapine; PI, protease inhibitor.