Table 5

Triangulation of quantitative and qualitative results: convergence and discrepancy of findings

Outcome of interestQuantitative fidelity findingsQualitative interview findingsConvergence/ discrepancy/ silence
Fidelity findings:Overall fidelity of content scoresHigh fidelity (>80%)
  • Direct observations: 82.7%

  • Self-report: 92.7%

  • Audio-recordings: 81.7%

Overall physiotherapists felt that their fidelity was good. Some adaptations and deviations were discussed as occurring in the delivery of the following aspects of the programme:
  • Goal-setting (Introduction and review, Review and planning categories)

  • Education content

  • Exercise content

  • Use of programme materials

  • Duration of session 1

SOLAS categories scoring <80% fidelity
Materials Moderate fidelity (50%–79%)
  • Direct observations: 72.1%

  • Audio-recordings: 61.1%

Introduction and review
  • Audio-recordings: 76.2%

Review and planning
  • Direct observations: 77.1%

  • Audio-recordings: 69.8%

Fidelity of duration—sessions significantly different to intended duration
Session 1
  • Education duration: 58.9 min*

  • Exercise duration: 31.4 min*

Factors influencing fidelity findings: Correlation between quantitative variables and fidelity scores Theme 1: physiotherapist knowledge and experience influenced delivery of SOLAS— education content Convergence
Physiotherapist experience (years qualified)
  • Audio-recordings: –0.333 (p=0.011)***

Physiotherapist group experience (years delivering group physiotherapy)
  • Self-report: –0.430 (p=0.018)***

Physiotherapist post-training evaluation score (%)
  • Direct observations: 0.581 (p=0.003)**

  • Audio-recordings: 0.314 (p=0.018)***

Theme 1: physiotherapist knowledge and experience influenced delivery of SOLAS— education content Convergence
Group size (average numbers of participants present)
  • Direct observations: –0.434 (p=0.034)***

Theme 3: group size influenced delivery of SOLAS—goal-setting, use of materials Convergence
No corresponding quantitative data Theme 2: individual needs influenced delivery of SOLAS—education, exercise, goal-setting Silence
Theme 4: group dynamics influenced delivery of SOLASgoal-setting
Theme 5: amount of education content influenced delivery of SOLASduration
Theme 6: resources/materials influenced delivery of SOLASeducation and exercise content
  • SOLAS, Self-management of Osteoarthritis and Low back pain through Activity and Skills.

  • *p<0.001, **p<0.005, ***p<0.05.