Table 1

Model input values and ranges for disease characteristics

Disease statePrevalence at simulation startCosts (annual)Disability weights
Mean (%)Min (%)Max (%)Ref.MeanSDRef.MeanMinMaxRef.
Steatosis27.955*18.63741.933American Diabetes Association, Wree et al, LaBrecque et al 8 16 18 13450Zhang et al 87 0.0000.0000.000Murray et al, Michelotti et al, Page and Harrison88–90
NASH3.141*2.0944.712American Diabetes Association, Wree et al, LaBrecque et al 8 16 18 267100Zhang et al 87 0.0330.0170.066Murray et al, Michelotti et al, Page and Harrison88–90
Cirrhosis0.314*0.2090.471Foster et al, Farrell and Larter91 92 28611073Baumeister et al 93 0.1940.1270.273 10 87
HCC0.025*0.0170.038Adams et al, Ascha et al 94 95 42 64415 992Murray et al, Bambha et al, McAdam-Marx et al 88 96 97 0.2940.1990.411Murray et al, Michelotti et al, Page and Harrison88–90
CHD6.544*Flegal et al, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention1 2 6 13 2334962Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Lightwood et al 6 98 0.0660.0430.095Murray et al 88
T2D9.447*Flegal et al, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention1 2 81703064Lightwood et al, Li et al 98–100 0.1500.0800.220Murray et al, Darbà et al 88 101
Overweight33.473*Flegal et al, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention1 2 343129Lightwood et al, Li et al 98 100 0.0000.0000.000Keating et al 102
Obesity37.391*Flegal et al, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention1 2 916344Lightwood et al, Li et al 98 100 0.0120.0010.022Keating et al 102
  • *Age-specific, sex-specific and/or ethnicity-specific values are specified in the online supplement.

  • CHD, coronary heart disease; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; NASH, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; T2D, type 2 diabetes.

  • Costs are population based, meaning that they include those who do not get care. CHD, T2D, overweight and obesity prevalence are not varied in the sensitivity analyses.