Table 1

Compilation of observations for our sample

DateAuthorTitleJournalSummary/relevanceTechnology usedPotential bias, sample size, miscellaneous comments
April 2017Schulz-Heik et al 8 Results from a clinical yoga program for veterans via telehealth provides comparable satisfaction and health improvements to in-person yoga. BMC Complement Altern Med Clinical yoga with US Veterans Affairs populationVideoconferencingVA population in Palo Alto only (geographically limited), acceptable sample size (n=29 control, n=30 intervention)
January 2016Iqbal et al 9 Cost effectiveness of a novel attempt to reduce readmission after ileostomy creation JSLS Patient satisfaction: satisfaction scored 4.69 out of 5 Effective: hospital readmission rates decreased $63 821 (71%) (p=0.002)Telephone call (daily) for 3 weeks after dischargeLimited to one area of the country and beneficiaries to University of Florida health system (geographically limited), good sample size (n=23 preintervention, n=32 postintervention)
May 2016Muller et al 10 Acceptability, feasibility, and cost of telemedicine for nonacute headaches: a randomized study comparing video and traditional consultations J Med Internet Res Used telehealth to diagnose and treat non-acute headaches
Satisfaction: patients satisfied with video and sound quality
Efficient: median travel distance for rural patients was 7.8 hours, cost €249, lost income €234 per visit (saved)
Effective: intervention group's consultations were shorter than control group
VideoconferencingNon-acute headache patients from Northern Norway, strong sample size (n=200), participants randomised
April 2016Dias et al 11 Voice telerehabilitation in Parkinson's disease Codas Satisfaction: reported as high
Effective: preference for telehealth intervention
Videoconference and telephone85% male (gender bias), videoconferencing mimicked the face-to-face rehabilitation for Parkinson's patients, small sample size (n=20)
November 2016Langabeer et al 12 Telehealth-enabled emergency medical services program reduces ambulance transport to urban emergency departments West J Emerg Med Satisfaction: no decrease
Efficient: 56% reduction in ambulance transports and 53% decrease in response time for the intervention group than the control
TelephoneLimited to patients regional to Houston, Texas (geographically limited), no randomisation, strong sample size (n=5570)
2016Hoaas et al 13 Adherence and factors affecting satisfaction in long-term telerehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a mixed methods study BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making Satisfaction: generally highly satisfied
Effective: increased health benefits, self-efficacy, independence, emotional safety and maintenance of motivation
Webpage for daily telemonitoring and self-care and weekly follow-up videoconference consults with a physiotherapistRemote population of northern Norway, small sample size (n=10)
2016Jacobs et al 14 Patientsatisfaction with a teleradiology service in general practice BMC Family Practice Satisfaction: island residents, the elderly and those with no history of trauma were more satisfied with the technical and interpersonal aspects of the teleconsultation than non-residents, younger patients and those with history of traumaTeleradiologyRestricted to rural health and Netherlands (geographically limited), strong sample (n=381)
February 2017Bradbury et al 15 Utilizing remote real-time videoconferencing to expand access to cancer genetic services in community practices: A multicenter feasibility study Journal of Medical Internet Research Satisfaction: all patients reported satisfaction and knowledge increased significantly
Effective: general anxiety and depression decreased
VideoconferencingRestricted to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (geographically limited), good sample size (n=41)
January 2016AlAzab and Khader16 Telenephrology application in rural and remote areas of Jordan: benefits and impact on quality of life Rural and Remote Health Satisfaction: patient satisfaction mean=96.8
Effective: mean SF8 score increased significantly (physical components of quality of life)
Electronic monitoring and telephone callsRural health (geographically limited), strong sample size (n=64)
March 2016Fields et al 17 Remote ambulatory management of veterans with obstructive sleep apnea Sleep Satisfaction: no difference in functional outcomes, patient satisfaction, dropout rates or objectively measured PAP adherence
Effective: telemedicine participants showed greater improvement in mental health scores and their feedback was positive
Telemonitoring and telephone follow-up callsRestricted to veterans in the Philadelphia area (geographically limited), good sample size (n=60)
January 2016Georgsson and Staggers18 Quantifying usability: an evaluation of a diabetes mHealth system on effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction metrics with association user characteristics in the US and Sweden Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association Satisfaction: good
Effective: good but not excellent usability
mHealth applicationYounger patients with more experience with information technology scored higher than others (age and technology bias), small sample size (n=10)
March 2016Polinski et al 19 Patients' satisfaction with and preference for telehealth visits Journal of General Internal Medicine Satisfaction: 33% preferred telehealth visits to traditional in-person visits; women preferred telehealth visits
Efficient: telehealth increased access to care. Lack of insurance increased odds of preferring telehealth
Efficient: other positive predictors were quality of care received, telehealth convenience and understanding of telehealth
Videoconferencing at Minute Clinics with diagnostic tools operated by a nurse70% women (gender bias), test was conducted in California and Texas (convenience sample), strong sample (n=1734)
2015Levy et al 20 Effects of physical therapy delivery via home video telerehabilitation on functional and health-related quality of life outcomes Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development Satisfied: all but one participant reported satisfied or highly satisfied
Effective: participants demonstrated significant improvement in most outcomes measures
Efficient: participants avoided 2,774.7 =/– 3197.4 travel miles, 46.3±53.3 hours or driving time, and $1151.50 ± $1326.90 in travel reimbursement
VideoconferencingConvenience sample, 92% male (gender bias), 69% >64 years (age bias), US Veterans only, small sample (n=26)
2014Holmes and Clark21 Technology-enabled care services: novel method of managing liver disease Gastrointestinal Nursing Satisfied: high, patients liked the self-manage aspect
Effective: participants lost weight, outcomes improved, readmissions decreased from 12 to 4 Efficient: average cost per patient 68.86 British pounds
Remote monitoring and text messagingSmall sample size (n=12)
2015Levy et al 22 The Mobile Insulin Titration Intervention (MITI) for insulin glargine titration in an urban, low-income population: randomized controlled trial protocol JMIR Research Protocols Highly satisfied: patientsin the intervention group reported higher levels of satisfaction
Effective: significantly more in the intervention group had reached their optimal insulin levels
Mobile Insulin Titration InterventionTrue experiment (randomised, good sampling technique)
2015Moin et al 23 Women veterans’ experience with a web-based diabetes prevention program: a qualitative study to inform future practice Journal of Medical Internet Research Effective: improved behavioural outcomes, more appropriate for women
Satisfied: participants felt empowered and accountable, they felt it was convenient and a good fit with their health needs and lifestyle
Web-basedWomen veterans, computer literacy was an issue for some (gender bias), small sample size (n=17)
2015Cotrell et al 24 Patient and professional user experiences of simple telehealth for hypertension, medication reminders and smoking cessation: a service evaluation BMJ Open Satisfied: positive patient satisfaction indicators
Effective: improvements were made over Florence, and users took an active approach to achieve their goals, patients felt empowered
Telemonitoring and medication remindersSatisfaction with the service appeared optimal when patients were carefully selected (selection bias), strong sample (n=1707)
2014Tabak et al 25 A telehealth program for self-management of COPD exacerbations and promotion of an active lifestyle: a pilot randomized controlled trial International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Satisfied: satisfaction was higher with the control group than the telehealth group
Effective: better clinical measures in the telehealth group
Web-based and smartphone application with an activity coachStrong study design, small sample size (n=19)
2014Kim et al 26 Costs of multidisciplinary parenteral nutrition care provided at a distance via mobile tablets Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Satisfied: easy to use, very convenient
Effective: outcomes similar to in-clinic visits
Efficient: cost $916.64 per patient
Telephone with semistructured interviewsGood sample size (n=20 visits for 45 patients)
2014Cancela et al 27 Wearability assessment of a wearable system for Parkinson's disease remote monitoring based on a body area networkof sensors Sensors Satisfied: overall satisfaction high, but some concern over public perceptions about the wearable sensors
Effective: for remote monitoring, wearable systems are highly effective
Remote monitoring based on a body area networkof sensorsAn extension of the Body Area Network sensors (limited population), good sample size (n=32)
2014Casey et al 28 Patients' experiences of using a smartphone application to increase physical activity: the SMART MOVE qualitative study in primary care Br J Gen Pract Satisfied: good usability
Effective: transformed relationships with exercise
Smartphone applicationSmall sample size (n=12)
January 2014Tsai et al 29 Influences of satisfaction with telecare and family trust in older Taiwanese people International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Satisfied: user satisfaction very high
Effective: user perception of high quality
Telemonitoring, web-based, telephoneFocus was on older users and their families, convenience sample, good size (n=60)
2014Oliveira et al 30 Telemedicine in Alentejo Telemedicine and e-Health Satisfied: positive impact on patient experience
Efficient: average time and cost of a tele-appointment is 93 min for teleconsultation and 9.31 pounds versus 190 min and 25.32 pounds for a face-to-face
TelephoneParticipants are older and less educated than the rest of the population of Portugal (age and education bias)
2013Minatodani et al 31 Home telehealth: facilitators, barriers, and impact of nurse support among high-risk dialysis patients Telemedicine and e-Health Satisfaction: patients reported high levels of satisfaction with RCN support because of the feedback on identification of changes in their health status, enhanced accountability, self-efficacy and motivation to make health behaviourchanges
Effective: through telehealth, greater self-awareness, self-efficacy and accountability
Efficient: feedback was more efficient
Telemonitoring with nurse supportLimited population, good sample size (n=33)
2013Akter et al 32 Modelling the impact of mHealth service quality on satisfaction, continuance and quality of life Behaviour & Information Technology Satisfied: satisfaction is related to service quality, continuance intentions and quality of life
Effective: mHealth should deliver higher-order, societal outcomes
Smartphone applicationSelection bias
2014Hung et al 33 Patient satisfaction with nutrition services amongst cancer patients treated with autologous stem cell transplantation: a comparison of usual and extended care Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics Satisfied: higher use was indicative of higher satisfaction
Effective: higher use was clinically important to outcomes
TelephoneSmall sample size (n=18)
December 2015Buis et al 34 Use of a text message program to raise type 2 diabetes risk awareness and promote health behavior change (part II): assessment of participants' perceptions on efficacy Journal of Medical Internet Research Satisfied: 67.1% reported very high satisfaction
Effective: txt4health messages were clear, increased disease literacy and more conscious of diet and exercise
Efficient: low participant costs
Text messagingMichigan and Cincinnati only (geographically limited), strong sample (n=159)
2013Houser et al 35 Telephone follow-up in primary care: can interactive voice responsecalls work Studies in Health Technology and Informatics Satisfied: strong satisfaction reported for the interactive voice response system, IVRS
Effective: patients felt informed
TelephoneSmall sample of those who received the call IVRS, small sample size (n=19)
2013Kairy et al 36 The patient's perspective of in-home telerehabilitation physiotherapy services following total knee arthroplasty International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Satisfied: feeling an ongoing sense of support
Effective: tailored challenging programmes using telerehabilitation
Efficient: improved access to services with reduced need for transportation, easy to use
VideoconferencingConvenience sample, single case, small sample size (n=6)
2013Bishop et al 37 Electronic communication improves access, but barriers to its widespread adoption remain Health Affairs Satisfied: easier access to and better communication with provider
Effective: patients with repeat issues of a condition are able to reset the treatment for the most recent episode
Efficient: it takes about 1 min per email, and it improves the efficiency of an office visit
Email and videoconferencingNew York City only, strong resistance to change cited (geographically limited), strong sample (n=630)
2013Pietta et al 38 Spanish-speaking patients' engagement in interactive voice response (IVR) support calls for chronic disease self-management: data from three countries Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare Satisfied: 88% patients reported ‘very satisfied’, 11% ‘mostly satisfied’
Effective: 100% patients felt the interactive voice response: IVR were helpful, 77% reported improved diet, 80% reported improved symptom monitoring, 80% reported improved medication adherence
Telephone73% women, average 6.1 years of education (age and education bias), strong sample (n=268)
2013Gund et al 39 A randomized controlled study about the use of eHealth in the home health care of premature infants BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making Satisfied: parents felt that the Skype calls were better than regular follow-up, and it often replaced an in-home visit
Effective: same or better outcomes because the parents did not have to bring infants in
Efficient: Nurses took <10 min of work time daily to answer questions
VideoconferencingRandomisation used
Semistructured interviews were only used for 16 families, small samples (n=13, 12, 9)
2013ter Huurne et al 40 Web-based treatment program using intensive therapeutic contact for patients with eating disorders: before-after study Journal of Medical Internet Research Satisfied: high satisfaction
Effective: significant improvements in eating disorder psychopathology, body dissatisfaction, quality of life, and physical and mental health; body mass index improved for obesity group only
Efficient: task completion rate was 80% for the younger group and 64.6% for the older group
Web-basedNot all participants reported the same diagnoses, strong pre–post design, strong sample (n=89)
2012Chun and Patterson41 A usability gap between older adults and younger adults on interface design of an Internet-based telemedicine system Work Satisfied: on a seven-point scale, satisfaction scores were 3.41 younger and 3.54 older, although there was equal dissatisfaction with the design of the systemWeb-basedSmall sample size (n=16)
2012Lee et al 42 The VISYTER Telerehabilitation system for globalizing physical therapy consultation: issues and challenges for telehealth implementation Journal of Physical Therapy Education Satisfied: reported as high and very high
Effective: increases access where proximity is an issue
Efficient: links multiple providers together for teleconsultation
VideoconferencingLimited scope for conclusions, patients in Mexico, providers in the USA (cultural bias), small sample (n=3)
2012Saifu et al 43 Evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C telemedicine clinics The American Journal of Managed Care Satisfied: 95% reported highest level of satisfaction
Effective: 95% reported a preference for telemedicine versus in-person visit
Efficient: reported a significant reduction in health visit-related time, mostly due to decreased travel
VideoconferencingVeterans in Los Angeles, California, only, convenience sample (geographically limited), strong sample (n=43)
2012Lua and Neni44 Feasibility and acceptability of mobile epilepsy educational system (MEES) for people with epilepsy in Malaysia Telemedicine and e-Health Satisfied: 74% reported very or quite useful
Effective: excellent modality for education, drug-taking reminder and clinic appointment reminder
Text messagingGood mix of genders, homo-ethnic sample: 92.2% Malay (racial bias), median age 25 (age and technology bias— younger may already be more receptive to technology), good size sample (n=51)
2012Finkelstein et al 45 Development of a remote monitoring satisfaction survey and its use in a clinical trial with lung transplant recipients Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare Satisfied: 90% of the subjects were satisfied with the home health telehealth service
Effective: frequency of communication increased
Remote monitoringLimited population
2011Gibson et al 46 Conversations on telemental health: listening to remote and rural First Nations communities Rural and Remote Health Satisfied: 47% positive response, 21% neutral, 32% negative
Effective: increased comfort in the therapeutic situation, increased usefulness
Efficient: increased access to services
VideoconferencingFirst-nations communities only (limited population), strong sample (n=59)
2010Doorenbos et al 47 Satisfaction with telehealth for cancer support groups in rural American Indian and Alaska Native communities Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing Satisfied: participants reported high levels of satisfaction with support groups via videoconference
Effective: results of this descriptive study are consistent with other research that shows the need for support groups as part of overall therapy for cancer survivors
Voice teleconference for group meetingsAll participants were women (gender bias), rural care only, participants were members of American Indian or Alaskan Native (limited population), strong sample size (n=900)
2010Breen et al 48 Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part II: the referring clinician and patient perspective BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making Satisfied: teleneurophysiology improved satisfaction with waiting times, availability of results and impact on patient management
Effective: telephysiology and control groups were equally as anxious about their procedure, telephysiology can improve access to CN services and expert opinion
Efficient: reduced travel burden and need for overnight journeys
Teleneurophysiology which included an EEGRemote-rural population of Northern Ireland, small sample of physicians (n=9 physicians, 116 patients)
2010Everett and  Kerr49 Telehealth as adjunctive therapy in insulin pump treated patients: a pilot study Practical Diabetes International Satisfied: patients reported more understanding, insight and control by viewing data and easy access to health professional
Effective: intervention group demonstrated improved diabetes control
Efficient: health professional time was <10 min each day to review data and was incorporated into current workload
Telemonitoring and text messagingEach user's home was visited to set up and demonstrate the system (good control for validity), small sample (n=16)
2010Gardner-Bonneau50 Remote patient monitoring: a human factors assessment Human Factors Horizons Satisfied: the intervention device was intuitive to use
Effective: telehealth group showed clinical improvements
Efficient: economic analysis showed savings in the COPD telemonitoring group, software issues caused many interventions by medical staff which consumed time
Remote monitoringMedical literacy became an issue when the device asked patients if their readings were normal, small sample size (n=27 control, n=19 intervention)
2010Shein et al 51 Patient satisfaction with Telerehabilitation assessments for wheeled mobility and seating Assistive Technology Satisfied: higher satisfaction with telerehabilitation
Efficient: great time savings in travel
Videoconferencing89.6% Caucasian, average age was 55, (racial and age bias), good sample (n=32)
  • CN, Clinical Neurophysiology; COPD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; IVRS, Interactive Voice Response System; PAP, Positive Airways Pressure; RCN, Remote Care Nurse; VA, Veterans Affairs.