Table 1

Hierarchy of the recommendations

Level of satisfaction of recommendationsDesirable criterionIllustration
SatisfactoryEmpiric antibiotic recommendation was supported by country-specific resistance patterns.Management for uncomplicated cystitis in women in Sweden listed recommendations for preferred antibiotics. For instance, nitrofurantoin was a preferred option as a first-line treatment because of low resistance rates in a community setting, whereas fluoroquinolones were not indicated in this syndrome due to rapidly increasing resistance development.30
American recommendations for bacterial rhinosinusitis recommend high-dose amoxicillin as a preferred option over standard-dose amoxicillin primarily to cover and control PRSP.17
Partial satisfactoryEmpiric antibiotic recommendation was supported by inconsistent resistance patterns.Filipino recommendations for mild CAP recommended the use of a beta-lactam with a beta-lactamase inhibitor without any justification on resistance. However, macrolides were considered as an alternative treatment because of a high threshold of resistance (20% resistance rate) among population.31
UnsatisfactoryEmpirical antibiotic recommendation did not support any resistance patterns or was not justified by country-specific resistance patterns.Beta-lactams as well as macrolides were recommended for the management of pharyngitis in Namibia without any specification about microbiology or resistance.32
  • CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; PRSP, penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.