Table 2

Summary characteristics of included studies

Study/patient characteristicStudies
Studies (%)
Year of publication
Continent (of country of study conduct)
 North America517.24
Study design
 Observational cohort29100.00
 Randomised clinical trial00.00
Registry study
Sample size
Number of interventions
 Cognitive developmental delay1258.62
 Language delay517.24
 Psychomotor developmental delay1137.93
 Neonatal seizures26.90
 Social impairment13.45
 Mixed public and private413.79
Treatment indication
 Mixed indications‡00.00
Epileptic control group§
Mean maternal age (years)
AED exposure during pregnancy
 Reported as during first trimester517.24
 Reported as any time during pregnancy413.79
 During pregnancy and breast feeding517.24
Alcohol use during pregnancy
Tobacco use during pregnancy
  • *Values in this category do not match totals as some studies report more than one outcome.

  • †Percentage of total number of included studies (n=29).

  • ‡Includes individuals taking AEDs for psychiatric disorders, migraine and neuropathic/neurological pain.

  • §Consisted of women with epilepsy who did not take AEDs during pregnancy.

  • ADHD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; AED, antiepileptic drug(s); NA, not applicable; NR, not reported.