Table 1

All-cause mortality in white lifelong non-smokers aged 40–69 years at entry in national health surveys (HSE and SHS) and in UK Biobank, in relation to GLI-2012 z-scores for FEV1 and FVC

HSE–SHS white lifelong non-smokers, 40– 69 years at entry Biobank white lifelong non-smokers, 40–69 years at entry
Timing of death Cause of death Total N (deaths) zFEV1, HR (95% CI) zFVC, HR (95% CI) Total N (deaths) zFEV1, HR (95% CI) zFVC, HR (95% CI)
Any timeAll causes6579 (500)1.17 (1.09 to 1.25)1.19 (1.10 to 1.28)149 343 (2401)1.21 (1.17 to 1.26)1.24 (1.19 to 1.29)
Within 5 yearsAll causes6579 (103)1.35 (1.17 to 1.56)1.35 (1.16 to 1.57)149 343 (1599)1.23 (1.17 to 1.28)1.26 (1.20 to 1.32)
After 5 yearsAll causes6476 (397)1.12 (1.03 to 1.21)1.14 (1.05 to 1.24)147 744 (802)1.18 (1.11 to 1.26)1.21 (1.13 to 1.29)
Any timeRespiratory6579 (24)1.72 (1.34 to 2.21)1.61 (1.25 to 2.08)149 343 (69)1.86 (1.53 to 2.27)2.15 (1.77 to 2.61)
Any timeCirculatory6579 (130)1.21 (1.06 to 1.38)1.22 (1.06 to 1.40)149 343 (431)1.41 (1.30 to 1.53)1.47 (1.35 to 1.60)
Any timeCancer6579 (241)1.10 (1.00 to 1.22)1.12 (1.01 to 1.24)149 343 (1535)1.08 (1.03 to 1.13)1.10 (1.05 to 1.15)
Any timeOther non-respiratory6579 (105)1.15 (0.98 to 1.34)1.20 (1.03 to 1.41)149 343 (366)1.46 (1.33 to 1.59)1.45 (1.32 to 1.59)
  • Spirometric indices (FEV1 and FVC) are modelled as z-scores derived from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) 2012 reference equations for whites. All HRs are expressed per unit decrement in z-score, adjusted for age, sex, height, socioeconomic status, geographical region and survey year.

  • FEV1, one-second forced expiratory volume; FVC, forced vital capacity; HSE, Health Survey for England; SHS, Scottish Health Survey; z, z-score.