Table 1

Exemplar initiatives to characterise incident T1D, in comparison with ADDRESS

TitleCountryGeographical coverageDiabetes subtypesRelatives of probandRecruitment age (years)MultiethnicBiological sample collectionAccessible data or biological samplesConsent to be approached about other researchYear initiatedAims
SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study32 USAFive regional centresAllNo<20YesYesUnknownUnknown2000To determine temporal changes in incidence and prevalence of diabetes in young people by subtype, age, gender and ethnicity, and to aid classification of subtype
T1D Exchange registry33 USA77 centres in 35 statesT1DNoChildren and adults of any ageYesYesYesYes (75% of cohort)2010To identify issues of clinical relevance, generate hypotheses and characterise patients for future studies
Belgian Diabetes Registry34 BelgiumBelgium-wide with national network of centres to conduct clinical trialsT1DFirst-degree relatives<40UnknownYesUnknownYes1989To detect trends in incidence over time, to identify markers of T1D onset and progression, and to conduct trials
BOX35 UKSix centres in the former Oxford Regional Health Authority areaT1DFirst-degree relatives≤21Unknown (there is little ethnic diversity in the region)YesNoYes1985To study the natural history of T1D, including initiation and progression of islet autoimmunity to identify those at risk of developing T1D, and to determine temporal changes in incidence
ADDRESSUK156 centres across England and WalesT1DSiblings≥5YesYesYesYes2007To study the heterogeneity of clinical presentation, to support recruitment into clinical trials and other studies, and to facilitate genetic and biomarker research