Table 1

Average annual growth rates (AAGRs) of the number of clinical trial applications (CTAs) by type of sponsor and trial phase in 10 Western European countries+

CountryTotal CTAs†CTAs by type of sponsorCTAs by type of trial phase
Commercially sponsored CTAsNon-commercially sponsored CTAsPhase I CTAsPhase II CTAsPhase III CTAsPhase IV CTAs
AAGRs in the period 2007–2015 (%)
 All countries−1.4−1.5−1.1−2.8*−2.2*−0.9−4.3*
 The UK§−1.5−1.2−2.5−5.1**   2.5−8.6*
 The Netherlands¶−1.1−1.2−1.1−0.61.8−1.4−2.9
AAGRs in the period 2007–2011 (%)
 All countries−3.9*−4.7*−1.5−2.4−1.1−2.0−6.4
 The UK§−6.3*−6.5*−5.7−4.4   −3.8−13*
 The Netherlands¶−4.2−6.1−1.2−4.4−1.9−4.3−7.4
AAGRs in the period 2012–2015 (%)
 All countries2.63.11.1−0.2−5.6−2.90.8
 The UK§−1.4   5.2*5.0
 The Netherlands¶2.36.7−3.74.616.20.54.8
  • +Data from Italy, France and Spain refer to the numbers of authorised clinical trials and not clinical trial applications.

  • †Phases can overlap. Thus, the summarised number of clinical trial applications for all trial phases is not necessarily equal to the total number of clinical trial applications registered.

  • ‡AAGR in the period 2011–2015 for Italy only includes data from 2011 to 2014.

  • §In the UK, phase II and III clinical trials are registered together and could therefore not be separated.

  • ¶Some clinical trials are not specified by the sponsor in regards to the trial phase. The national competent authorities of Italy and the Netherlands have registered these as not specified. These trials are not included in this table.

  • *Indicates p<0.05.

  • **Indicates p<0.001.