Table 2

Menstrual hygiene knowledge, practices and school facilities for Bangladeshi schoolgirls, 2013

Indicatorsn/N%* or mean (SD)95% CI
Current perception about menstruation:
 No idea1132/233249(44 to 55)
 A normal biological process for women959/233240(34 to 45)
 A female illness229/233210(7 to 14)
 Curse of God12/23321(0.1 to 1)
Knew/heard about menstruation before menarche862/233236(33 to 39)
Knew/heard about menstruation issues before menarche from:
 Mother/sister/aunt/grandmother592/233226(23 to 29)
 Friend255/233211(8 to 14)
 Teacher15/23320.64(0.32 to 0.91)
Believe menstrual problems interfere with school performance756/233232(27 to 37)
Materials used during menstruation:
 Re-used cloth1904/233286(84 to 88)
 Disposable pad355/233210(8.5 to 12)
 Other†43/23322(1.2 to 3)
Mean no of menstrual cloth changes per dayn=18983 (1)
Washed cloth with soap and improved water source for repeated use1225/190457(50 to 63)
Washed cloth with soap and improved source of water and dried in sunlight for repeated use525/190425(21 to 29)
School has a place‡ to change menstrual materials733/233231(27 to 35)
Schools with separate improved toilet for girls602/70082
Schools with separate improved and unlocked toilet for girls671/233228(24 to 33)
Mean no of female students per improved and unlocked toilet for girlsn=36398 (48)
School has improved toilet with soap and water available213/23329(6.9 to 12)
Perceived that school facilities were inappropriate for managing menstrual hygiene1906/233282(77 to 88)
Disposal location of absorbent materials at school:
 Did not change and dispose at school1935/233283(79 to 86)
 Inside toilet pan85/23324(2.6 to 4.8)
 Hidden inside classroom73/23323(1.8 to 4.6)
 In the open71/23323(2 to 4)
Menstrual hygiene education session had ever been provided at school213/23329(6.8 to 11)
Mean grade level for which menstrual hygiene education sessions were provided at schooln=2138 (1.7)
Family enforced prohibitions during menstruation:
 Not allowed to go out/to certain places1096/233271(68 to 74)
 Not allowed to perform religious activities1185/233254(49 to 60)
 Not allowed to cook/eat certain food741/233232(29 to 34)
 No restriction362/233216(13 to 19)
 Instructed not to walk fast/run160/23327(5 to 8)
  • *Weighted for rural/urban balance and school size.

  • †Cotton/tissue paper/waste fabrics from garment factories.

  • ‡Unlocked toilet for girls or change room.