Stratified analyses
Sex
 Women1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)0.8 (0.7 to 0.9)<0.01
 Men2.2 (2.0 to 2.3)1.5 (1.3 to 1.6)<0.01
Age
 18–44 years0.5 (0.4 to 0.5)0.3 (0.3 to 0.3)<0.01
 45–64 years2.9 (2.7 to 3.1)2.2 (2.1 to 2.4)<0.01
 65–79 years9.9 (9.1 to 10.7)7.7 (7.2 to 8.3)<0.01
Education‡
 Low2.7 (2.5 to 2.9)2.5 (2.2 to 2.7)0.12
 Middle0.7 (0.7 to 0.8)0.7 (0.6 to 0.8)0.29
 High1.3 (1.1 to 1.4)0.8 (0.7 to 1.0)<0.01
BMI (kg/m²)§
 <25.00.4 (0.4 to 0.5)0.3 (0.3 to 0.3)<0.01
 25.0–29.92.4 (2.2 to 2.5)1.7 (1.6 to 1.8)<0.01
 =30.07.2 (6.7 to 7.8)6.4 (5.8 to 7.0)0.03
Region
 North-East1.6 (1.2 to 2.1)1.0 (0.9 to 1.3)<0.01
 Central-East1.7 (1.5 to 2.0)1.4 (1.2 to 1.6)0.02
 North-West1.4 (1.2 to 1.7)1.0 (0.8 to 1.3)<0.01
 Central-West1.6 (1.4 to 1.8)1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)<0.01
 South1.4 (1.3 to 1.6)1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)<0.01
  • All data are weighted to the German population as of 31 December 2010.

  • *Exclusion of 240 participants in 1997–1999 (GNHIES98) and 128 participants in 2008–2011 (DEGS1).

  • †Information was missing for 15 participants in 1997–1999 (GNHIES98) and 22 participants in 2008–2011 (DEGS1).

  • ‡Information was missing for 18 participants in 1997–1999 (GNHIES98) and 11 participants in 2008–2011 (DEGS1).

  • §Information was missing for nine participants in 2008–2011 (DEGS1).

  • BMI, body mass index; DEGS1, German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults; GNHIES98, German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998.