Table 1

Components of the GDRS, overall GDRS points and predicted 5-year type 2 diabetes risk in 1997–1999 (GNHIES98, n=6457) and 2008–2011 (DEGS1, n=6095) among participants aged 18–79 years

Mean value or percentage (95% CI)Equivalent GDRS points (95% CI)
1997–1999 (GNHIES98)2008–2011 (DEGS1)1997–1999 (GNHIES98)2008–2011 (DEGS1)
Age (years)46.4 (45.7 to 47.1)46.0 (45.6 to 46.5)236.7 (233.0 to 240.3)234.8 (232.4 to 237.2)
Waist circumference (cm)90.7 (90.1 to 91.2)¶89.1 (88.5 to 89.7)689.0 (684.8 to 693.2)¶677.4 (672.8 to 682.0)
Height (cm)169.4 (169.1 to 169.8)¶170.7 (170.4 to 171.1)−457.5 (−458.3 to –456.6)¶−460.9 (–461.9 to –460.0)
Hypertension (%)22.0 (20.7 to 23.4)¶30.7 (29.3 to 32.1)10.3 (9.7 to 11.0)¶14.4 (13.8 to 15.1)
Sport activity (hours/day)1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)¶1.4 (1.4 to 1.5)−2.1 (−2.2 to –2.0)¶−2.8 (–2.9 to –2.7)
Former smoker (<20 cigarettes/day) (%)*12.1 (11.1 to 13.1)¶17.6 (16.3 to 19.0)1.8 (1.7 to 2.0)¶2.6 (2.4 to 2.8)
Former smoker (≥20 cigarettes/day) (%)10.4 (9.5 to 11.3)10.4 (9.5 to 11.4)4.7 (4.2 to 5.1)4.7 (4.2 to 5.1)
Current smoker (<20 cigarettes/day) (%)19.4 (18.1 to 20.8)¶22.0 (20.6 to 23.4)4.5 (4.2 to 4.8)¶5.1 (4.7 to 5.4)
Current smoker (≥20 cigarettes/day) (%)13.4 (12.2 to 14.6)¶8.0 (7.0 to 9.1)10.3 (9.4 to 11.2)¶6.1 (5.4 to 6.9)
Whole grain intake (each 50 g/day)1.3 (1.3 to 1.3)¶1.2 (1.2 to 1.3)−9.0 (−9.3 to –8.8)¶−8.6 (−9.0 to –8.2)
Coffee consumption (each 150 g/day)2.6 (2.6 to 2.7)¶3.3 (3.1 to 3.4)−13.2 (−13.5 to –13.0)¶−16.3 (−17.0 to –15.6)
Red meat intake (each 150 g/day)0.6 (0.6 to 0.6)¶0.3 (0.3 to 0.3)31.1 (30.7 to 31.4)¶17.7 (16.9 to 18.5)
One parent with diabetes (%)†24.0 (constant)22.6 (21.2 to 24.1)13.4 (constant)12.7 (11.9 to 13.5)
Both parents with diabetes (%)‡2.0 (constant)1.8 (1.4 to 2.3)2.1 (constant)1.9 (1.5 to 2.3)
At least one sibling with diabetes (%)§5.0 (constant)5.0 (constant)2.4 (constant)2.4 (constant)
GDRS (points)524.4 (517.4 to 531.4)¶491.2 (484.3 to 498.1)  n/a  n/a
Predicted 5-year type 2 diabetes risk (%)1.5 (1.4 to 1.6)¶1.1 (1.0 to 1.2)  n/a  n/a
  • Values are given as weighted arithmetic mean (95% CI) or weighted percentage (95% CI) and for predicted 5-year type 2 diabetes risk as weighted geometric mean (95% CI). All data are weighted to the German population as of 31 December 2010.

  • *The prevalence of never smoking was 44.8% (95% CI 43.1% to 46.5%) in GNHIES98 and 42.0% (95% CI 40.4% to 43.7%) in DEGS1.

  • †Information was not ascertained in 1997–1999 (GNHIES98) and is substituted by a constant reflecting the prevalence of history of diabetes in one parent among participants in 2008–2011 (DEGS1). Missing information in 2008–2011 (DEGS1, n=382) is replaced by a constant reflecting the prevalence of history of diabetes in one parent among participants with available information.

  • ‡Information was not ascertained in 1997–1999 (GNHIES98) and is substituted by a constant reflecting the prevalence of history of diabetes in both parents among participants in 2008–2011 (DEGS1). Missing information in 2008–2011 (DEGS1, n=382) is replaced by a constant reflecting the prevalence of history of diabetes in both parents among participants with available information.

  • §Information was not ascertained in 1997–1999 (GNHIES98) and in 2008–2011 (DEGS1) and is substituted by a constant reflecting the prevalence of a sibling history of diabetes in EPIC-Potsdam.

  • ¶Significant difference between 1997–1999 (GNHIES98) and 2008–2011 (DEGS1) at a level of p<0.05.

  • DEGS1, German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults; GDRS, German Diabetes Risk Score; GNHIES98, German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998.