Table 2

Multivariable binary logistic regression per country with associations (odds ratios and 95% CIs) of socio-demographic and intrinsic fall risk factors with self-reported falling among persons from 12 countries in The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, 2010–2013.

SwitzerlandDenmarkSwedenAustriaItalyNetherlandsGermanyBelgiumEstoniaFranceSpainCzech Republicp†
n=1345n=840n=946n=1864n=1364n=1027n=570n=1747n=2749n=1771n=1396n=1956n=
17 575
Age≥80 years2.18**(1.33 to 3.57)3.06***
(1.69 to 5.55)
2.08**
(1.20 to 3.59)
2.12***
(1.44 to 3.11)
1.14
(0.70 to 1.87)
2.43***
(1.49 to 3.97)
2.95**
(1.47 to 5.92)
1.62**
(1.16 to 2.61)
1.53**
(1.17 to 2.00)
1.35
(0.98 to 1.87)
1.44*
(1.01 to 2.04)
1.42*
(1.02 to 1.99)
0.004
Female gender1.60
(0.96 to 2.66)
0.72
(0.39 to 1.33)
0.91
(0.55 to 1.53)
1.83**
(1.21 to 2.77)
1.73*
(1.13 to 2.65)
1.33
(0.81 to 2.19)
1.75
(0.92 to 3.35)
1.79***
(1.27 to 2.54)
1.07
(0.82 to 1.40)
1.75***
(1.27 to 2.43)
1.66**
(1.17 to 2.36)
1.43*
(1.07 to 1.91)
0.086
Low education1.23
(0.75 to 2.00)
1.06
(0.56 to 2.03)
0.70
(0.43 to 1.15)
0.74
(0.50 to 1.10)
0.69
(0.40 to 1.17)
1.37
(0.84 to 2.22)
0.92
(0.40 to 2.08)
1.00
(0.73 to 1.37)
0.82
(0.64 to 1.05)
1.32
(0.97 to 1.81)
0.85
(0.48 to 1.49)
1.18
(0.91 to 1.54)
0.275
Living alone1.24
(0.76 to 2.01)
1.46
(0.81 to 2.64)
0.90
(0.52 to 1.55)
1.49*
(1.04 to 2.16)
0.99
(0.61 to 1.60)
1.53
(0.94 to 2.48)
1.30
(0.66 to 2.58)
1.40*
(1.02 to 1.93)
1.27
(0.98 to 1.63)
1.21
(0.90 to 1.63)
1.39
(0.95 to 2.02)
1.35*
(1.03 to 1.79)
0.530
Less than good SRH1.22
(0.70 to 2.11)
1.67
(0.89 to 3.13)
1.57
(0.92 to 2.68)
1.77**
(1.19 to 2.65)
1.15
(0.71 to 1.85)
2.09**
(1.27 to 3.43)
1.80
(0.89 to 3.63)
1.64**
(1.17 to 2.32)
1.05
(0.73 to 1.51)
1.10
(0.80 to 1.50)
1.13
(0.77 to 1.64)
1.69***
(1.26 to 2.27)
0.001
Mobility limitation(s)1.13
(0.63 to 2.03)
2.06*
(1.06 to 3.99)
1.99*
(1.13 to 3.51)
1.16
(0.76 to 1.75)
1.42
(0.87 to 2.31)
1.72*
(1.05 to 2.83)
0.44*
(0.19 to 0.98)
1.77***
(1.25 to 2.50)
1.67***
(1.27 to 2.21)
1.47*
(1.06 to 2.03)
1.42
(0.97 to 2.07)
1.19
(0.90 to 1.59)
0.002
ADL limitation(s)1.36
(0.68 to 2.73)
1.98
(0.93 to 4.19)
1.45
(0.76 to 2.77)
2.02**
(1.29 to 3.15)
1.41
(0.85 to 2.35)
1.59
(0.82 to 3.10)
2.43*
(1.06 to 5.53)
1.33
(0.92 to 1.91)
1.51**
(1.14 to 2.00)
1.60*
(1.10 to 2.32)
1.17
(0.77 to 1.78)
1.20
(0.83 to 1.75)
0.022
Dizziness1.84
(0.95 to 3.57)
5.19***
(2.76 to 9.77)
1.62
(0.85 to 3.08)
1.05
(0.66 to 1.69)
1.78*
(1.10 to 2.87)
1.16
(0.61 to 2.19)
1.21
(0.52 to 2.78)
1.32
(0.87 to 1.99)
1.45**
(1.11 to 1.89)
1.16
(0.77 to 1.77)
0.92
(0.61 to 1.39)
1.97***
(1.38 to 2.81)
<0.001
Impaired vision1.77
(1.00 to 3.13)
1.07
(0.50 to 2.30)
1.61
(0.78 to 3.33)
1.25
(0.77 to 2.03)
1.03
(0.67 to 1.59)
1.12
(0.59 to 2.13)
1.05
(0.42 to 2.68)
0.88
(0.59 to 1.32)
1.50***
(1.18 to 1.92)
0.97
(0.67 to 1.40)
1.27
(0.91 to 1.76)
1.10
(0.79 to 1.54)
0.375
Depression1.39
(0.82 to 2.36)
1.96*
(1.02 to 3.79)
1.48
(0.86 to 2.56)
1.39
(0.93 to 2.07)
1.77*
(1.13 to 2.76)
1.07
(0.63 to 1.82)
1.29
(0.64 to 2.58)
1.78***
(1.29 to 2.45)
1.18
(0.92 to 1.52)
1.06
(0.78 to 1.44)
1.25
(0.87 to 1.79)
1.14
(0.85 to 1.54)
0.025
Impaired cognition1.76
(0.77 to 4.06)
1.28
(0.57 to 2.86)
2.24*
(1.04 to 4.83)
1.38
(0.80 to 2.38)
2.02**
(1.30 to 3.14)
2.24**
(1.21 to 4.14)
1.13
(0.41 to 3.16)
1.33
(0.89 to 2.00)
1.47*
(1.04 to 2.08)
1.11
(0.75 to 1.63)
1.42*
(1.02 to 1.99)
1.54***
(1.04 to 2.30)
0.334
  • All Odds ratios are adjusted for other factors in the table and self-reported falling at baseline. *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001

  • †We tested for the significance of between-country differences in the strength of the association between predictors (socio-demographic and intrinsic risk factors) and falling by including data from all countries in one logistic regression model and adding an interaction term for country(dummy)*predictor, for each predictor separately.

  • ADL, Activities of daily living; SRH, self-rated health.