Table 3

Associations (ORs and 95% CIs) between countries and self-reported falling adjusted for socio-demographic factors and intrinsic fall risk factors among persons from 12 countries in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, 2010–2013; n=17 575.

Model 1:
univariate†
Model 2:
socio-demographic adjusted
Model 3:
mental health§ adjusted
Model 4:
physical health adjusted
Model 5:
adjusted for all†† variables
Switzerland11111
Denmark1.28 (0.94 to 1.74)1.24 (0.90 to 1.70)1.25 (0.90 to 1.72)1.09 (0.79 to 1.51)1.12 (0.80 to 1.55)
Sweden1.23 (0.91 to 1.66)1.22 (0.90 to 1.67)1.23 (0.90 to 1.69)1.11 (0.81 to 1.51)1.14 (0.83 to 1.57)
Austria1.18 (0.91 to 1.52)1.15 (0.88 to 1.50)1.10 (0.84 to 1.44)0.93 (0.71 to 1.21)0.92 (0.70 to 1.22)
Italy1.30 (0.99 to 1.71)1.31 (0.99 to 1.74)1.06 (0.79 to 1.42)0.93 (0.69 to 1.24)0.85 (0.63 to 1.15)
Netherlands1.48**(1.11 to 1.97)1.39**(1.04 to 1.88)1.44*(1.07 to 1.95)1.33 (0.98 to 1.79)1.38*(1.02 to 1.86)
Germany1.36 (0.96 to 1.91)1.52*(1.07 to 2.17)1.41 (0.98 to 2.02)1.13 (0.79 to 1.62)1.13 (0.78 to 1.63)
Belgium1.78***(1.39 to 2.29)1.65***(1.27 to 2.13)1.47**(1.13 to 1.91)1.34*(1.03 to 1.74)1.31*(1.00 to 1.71)
Estonia1.83***(1.45 to 2.32)1.80***(1.42 to 2.29)1.53***(1.19 to 1.95)1.09 (0.85 to 1.40)1.06 (0.82 to 1.37)
France2.07***(1.62 to 2.63)1.83***(1.42 to 2.36)1.60***(1.23 to 2.07)1.51**(1.17 to 1.95)1.42**(1.09 to 1.84)
Spain2.10***(1.64 to 2.70)1.96***(1.50 to 2.55)1.45**(1.10 to 1.91)1.39*(1.06 to 1.83)1.22 (0.92 to 1.62)
Czech Republic2.30***(1.81 to 2.92)2.35***(1.84 to 3.01)2.23***(1.73 to 2.86)1.78***(1.39 to 2.30)1.79***(1.38 to 2.31)
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †Adjusted for self-reported falling at baseline.

  • ‡Adjusted for model 1 and socio-demographic factors (sex, age, education level and living situation).

  • §Adjusted for model 2, depression and impaired cognition.

  • ¶Adjusted for model 2, mobility limitations, activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, dizziness, less than good self-rated health (SRH) and impaired vision.

  • ††Adjusted for model 2, mobility limitations, ADL limitations, dizziness, less than good SRH, impaired vision, depression and impaired cognition.