Table 2

Bivariate analyses of the relationship between participant determinants and perceived stress

VariablePerceived stress (median)
RR (95% CI)p Value
Individual determinants
 Age1.00 (0.99 to 1.01)0.502
 Total PA – min/week1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.669
 MVPA – min/week1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.114
 VPA – min/week1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.658
 Gender (woman)1.55 (1.27 to 1.89)<0.001
 Country of birth (non-Spanish)1.34 (1.05 to 1.70)0.017
 Working status (student)1.22 (0.95 to 1.56)0.115
 Education level (university studies completed or equivalent-level education)0.92 (0.75 to 1.12)0.387
 Living with family/partner0.91 (0.73 to 1.15)0.439
 Employed people in household (2–5)–5 0.74 (0.62 to 0.90)0.002
 MEDEA Index
  First tertile (least deprived)1.00
  Second tertile1.08 (0.85 to 1.37)0.537
  Third tertile (most deprived)1.18 (0.94 to 1.48)0.162
 Children in household (yes)0.90 (0.74 to 1.11)0.330
 Children <3 years in household (yes)0.87 (0.60 to 1.27)0.475
 Self-perceived health (very good/excellent)0.87 (0.71 to 1.06)0.157
 BMI (overweight/obese)0.95 (0.77 to 1.18)0.669
 Chronic disease (yes)1.38 (1.04 to 1.83)0.024
 Stress releasing (agreement)0.87 (0.68 to 1.11)0.273
 Bicycle trip enjoyment (agreement)0.91 (0.72 to 1.14)0.425
Environmental determinants
 Commute distance, estimated (km)1.02 (0.97 to 1.06)0.508
 Public bicycle stations
  Home, count in 400 m buffer0.99 (0.95 to 1.02)0.503
  Work/study, count in 400 m buffer0.96 (0.93 to 0.99)0.024
 Greenness, NDVI
  Home, average in 400 m buffer0.94 (0.85 to 1.05)0.258
  Work/study, average in 400 m buffer1.06 (0.96 to 1.16)0.241
  Commute route, average in RBA0.99 (0.89 to 1.09)0.838
 NO2 (μg m−3)
  Home, concentration in 400 m buffer1.00 (0.99 to 1.01)0.827
  Work/study, concentration in 400 m buffer1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.100
  Commute route, concentration in RBA1.00 (0.99 to 1.00)0.518
 Noise, >55 dB
  Home, proportion in 400 m buffer1.00 (0.98 to 1.00)0.363
  Work/study, proportion in 400 m buffer1.01 (0.99 to 1.01)0.125
  Commute route, proportion in RBA1.00 (0.98 to 1.01)0.405
 Bikeability
  Home, weighted average in 400 m buffer1.00 (0.94 to 1.07)0.931
  Work/study, weighted average in 400 m buffer0.92 (0.86 to 0.98)0.009
  Commute route, weighted average in RBA0.91 (0.84 to 0.98)0.018
  • Complete case analysis excluding missing data of the variables of final models (table 3; n=771). The variables that still present missing data and are not included in the final models are total PA (5; 0.63%), living with family/partner (1; 0.13%), children in household (2; 0.25%), children <3 years old in household (3; 0.38%), BMI (2; 0.25%); stress releasing (15; 1.90%), bicycle trip enjoyment (12; 1.52%), commute distance (20; 2.54%), greenness (20; 2.54%), NO2(20; 2.54%).BMI, body mass index; MEDEA, Mortalidad en áreas pequeñas Españolas y Desigualdades socioEconómicas y Ambientales, in Spanish (Environmental and socioEconomic Inequalities in Mortality in small Spanish areas, translated to English); MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; NDVI, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index; RBA, route by area; RR, Relative Risk; total PA, total physical activity; VPA, vigorous physical activity.