Table 3

Multivariate models assessing the relationship between bicycle commuting and participant perceived stress (median)

VariablePerceived stress (median)
Model 1*
RR (95% CI)
p ValueModel 2
RR (95% CI)
p ValueModel 3
RR (95% CI)
p ValueModel 4§
RR (95% CI)
p Value
All sample (771)
Bicycle commuting status
 Non-bicycle commuters1.001.001.001.00
 Bicycle commuters0.73 (0.60 to 0.89)0.0010.75 (0.62 to 0.91)0.0030.77 (0.63 to 0.94)0.0090.80 (0.66 to 0.99)0.036
Bicycle commuting levels
 Non-bicycle commuters1.001.001.001.00
 Low-level bicycle commuters1.10 (0.87 to 1.39)0.4361.11 (0.88 to 1.40)0.3691.13 (0.89 to 1.44)0.2971.17 (0.92 to 1.48)0.205
 Medium-level bicycle commuters0.46 (0.28 to 0.78)0.0040.45 (0.27 to 0.74)0.0020.45 (0.27 to 0.75)0.0020.48 (0.29 to 0.80)0.005
 High-level bicycle commuters0.63 (0.49 to 0.81)<0.0010.66 (0.51 to 0.85)0.0010.68 (0.52 to 0.88)0.0030.71 (0.54 to 0.92)0.010
Bicycle commuting propensity
 Unwilling non-bicycle commuters1.001.001.001.00
 Willing non-bicycle commuters0.72 (0.56 to 0.94)0.0140.75 (0.58 to 0.97)0.0290.74 (0.57 to 0.96)0.0220.75 (0.58 to 0.97)0.031
 Infrequent bicycle commuters0.98 (0.76 to 1.25)0.8471.00 (0.78 to 1.27)0.9801.01 (0.79 to 1.30)0.9401.04 (0.81 to 1.34)0.739
 Frequent bicycle commuters0.53 (0.41 to 0.67)<0.0010.55 (0.43 to 0.70)<0.0010.56 (0.43 to 0.72)<0.0010.58 (0.45 to 0.76)<0.001
Bicycle commuters sample (387)
Bicycle commuting levels
 Low-level bicycle commuters1.001.001.001.00
 Medium-level bicycle commuters0.42 (0.24 to 0.73)0.0020.39 (0.23 to 0.67)0.0010.39 (0.23 to 0.65)<0.0010.38 (0.23 to 0.65)<0.001
 High-level bicycle commuters0.57 (0.42 to 0.77)<0.0010.59 (0.44 to 0.80)0.0010.59 (0.44 to 0.80)0.0010.59 (0.44 to 0.80)0.001
Bicycle commuting propensity
 Infrequent bicycle commuters1.001.001.001.00
 Frequent bicycle commuters0.54 (0.40 to 0.72)<0.0010.55 (0.41 to 0.73)<0.0010.54 (0.41 to 0.72)<0.0010.54 (0.41 to 0.72)<0.001
Non-bicycle commuters sample (384)
Bicycle commuting propensity
 Unwilling non-bicycle commuters1.001.001.001.00
 Willing non-bicycle commuters0.72 (0.56 to 0.94)0.0150.73 (0.57 to 0.95)0.0200.72 (0.56 to 0.93)0.0130.74 (0.57 to 0.95)0.020
  • *Unadjusted.

  • Adjusted by gender, country of birth, employed people in household, chronic disease.

  • Adjusted by age, gender, country of birth, employed people in household, chronic disease, self-perceived health, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  • § Adjusted by age, gender, country of birth, employed people in household, chronic disease, self-perceived health, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, public bicycle stations at work/study, bikeability at work/study, bikeability at commute route.

  • RR, Relative Risk.