Table 1

Comparison of demographic characteristics and comorbidities between patients with and without type 1 diabetes mellitus

ControlsPatients with type 1 diabetes mellitusp Value
(n=16 640)(n=4160)
N (%)N (%)
Sex0.99
 Female8828 (53.1)2207 (53.1)
 Male7812 (47.0)1953 (47.0)
Age, years, mean (SD)*18.0 (7.85)15.6 (7.76)<0.001
Stratified by age<0.001
 <187622 (45.8)2527 (60.8)
 ≥189018 (54.2)1633 (39.3)
Follow-up duration, years (SD)*6.57 (3.99)6.28 (4.04)<0.001
Urbanisation level 0.003
 1 (Very high)4590 (27.6)1181 (28.4)
 2 (High)4907 (29.5)1316 (31.6)
 3 (Moderate)3363 (20.2)725 (17.4)
 4 (Low)3780 (22.7)938 (22.6)
Parental occupation<0.001
 White collar9678 (58.2)2222 (53.4)
 Blue collar4891 (29.4)1339 (32.2)
 Others 2071 (12.5)599 (14.4)
Comorbidity
 Rhinitis4389 (26.4)1049 (25.2)0.13
 Urticaria1645 (9.89)388 (9.33)0.44
  • *Student's t-test, χ2 test.

  • †The urbanisation level was categorised by the population density of the residential area into four levels, with level 1 as the most urbanised and level 4 as the least urbanised.

  • ‡Other occupations included primarily retired, unemployed or low-income populations.