Table 2

Associations between childhood morbidity (diarrhoea or ARI) in 2 weeks preceding the survey and background characteristics of children

Background characteristicsBangladeshNepalPakistan
% Diarrhoea% ARI% Diarrhoea% ARI% Diarrhoea% ARI
Childhood ARI/diarrhoea in last 2 weeks
 Experienced9.89.330.110.130.223.7
 Not experienced5.45.113.13.820.413.6
 χ2 14.27*14.27*55.65*55.65*145.59*145.59*
Age of child, months
 0–116.47.718.35.630.218.1
 12–356.86.019.06.027.217.9
 36–594.13.56.72.914.212.8
 χ2 21.89*41.15*150.24*24.46*308.76*52.81*
Place of residence
 Rural5.75.713.94.622.716.4
 Urban5.64.313.45.021.914.6
 χ2 0.015.66**0.070.120.895.84**
Mother’s educational status
 Incomplete primary6.15.214.24.623.516.4
 Incomplete secondary6.06.114.85.123.016.3
 Secondary or higher3.83.310.54.118.513.4
 χ2 9.93*15.37*7.75†1.0422.26*10.84*
Wealth status of household
 Low6.36.513.54.723.515.6
 Middle5.35.215.05.523.617.0
 High5.23.311.82.217.113.7
 χ2 3.6619.76*5.0312.92*36.23*10.58*
Access to electronic media
 No access6.46.015.84.723.215.9
 Have access5.25.013.54.622.215.8
 χ2 4.87†3.392.830.031.420.03
Age of mother at the time of survey, years
 15–196.37.916.25.632.621.1
 20–295.65.314.04.724.316.2
 30–495.64.112.94.219.915.2
 χ2 0.8620.72*2.641.4743.87*7.09**
Source of drinking water
 Unimproved/not in premises6.86.114.14.721.715.5
 Improved in premises5.45.213.74.622.716.0
 χ2 5.25†2.330.130.021.220.39
Toilet facility
 Worst6.17.315.54.824.215.5
 Moderate5.86.412.05.623.515.8
 Ideal5.64.612.34.121.816.0
 χ2 0.4115.55*11.28*2.738.14**0.47
No of adults per room
 More than two adults5.05.314.84.822.715.7
 Up to two adults6.15.413.14.621.916.2
 χ2 3.93†0.073.180.130.780.49
Household cooking fuel
 Not ideal7.88.112.95.223.716.4
 Ideal5.45.115.13.820.615.1
 χ2 6.89*11.85*5.53**5.50**14.65*3.00†
Household floor material
 Mud6.05.814.35.023.315.8
 Not mud4.94.412.53.621.715.9
3.577.19*2.504.35†3.83**0.03
Overall5.75.413.84.622.515.9
  • The figures for various levels of predictors represent the percentage of children experiencing disease

  • *p<0.01.

  • **p<0.05.

  • †p<0.1.

  • ARI, acute respiratory infection.