Table 1

Summary of outcome measures

VariableData collection instrument
Primary outcome measure
Femoral neck aBMDProximal femur DXA scan (Medix DR, Medilink, France)
Secondary outcome measures
Other bone outcomes
 Whole body aBMD, BMC and bone area; lumbar spine aBMD, BMC and bone area; and proximal femur (trochanter and total hip regions) aBMD, BMC and bone areaDXA scans (Medix DR, Medilink, France)
 Femoral neck (trabecular, cortical and total) BMC, vBMD and volume; total hip (trabecular, cortical and total) BMC, vBMD and volumeProximal femur DXA scan (Medix DR, Medilink, France), 3D hip software (DMS Group, Mauguio, France)
 Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound and stiffness indexCalcaneal QUS (Lunar Achilles InSight, GE Healthcare, Wisconsin, USA)
 Total content, vBMD and cross-sectional area; trabecular content, density and cross-sectional area; cortical content, vBMD, cross-sectional area and thickness; periosteal and endocortical circumference; total and trabecular bone strength indices; polar section modulus; polar strength strain indexForearm 4% and 66% sites, and leg 4%, 14%, 38% and 66% sites pQCT scans (XCT-3000, Stratec Medizintechnik, Pforzheim, Germany)
 HeightWall-mounted stadiometer (Model 216; Seca, Hamburg, Germany)
 WeightMechanical beam scale (Model 700; Seca, Hamburg, Germany)
 Waist circumferenceSteel tape (Model W606PM; Lufkin Executive Thinline, Apex, USA)
Body composition
 Lean mass, fat mass, appendicular lean mass and percent body fatWhole-body DXA scan (Medix DR, Medilink, France)
 Muscle cross-sectional area and muscle densityForearm 66% site and leg 66% site pQCT scans (XCT-3000, Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany)
Thoracic kyphosisPlurimeter gravity referenced inclinometer (Australasian Medical & Therapeutic Instruments, Australia)
Lateral decubitus thoracolumbar spine DXA (Medix DR, Medilink, France)
Vertebral fracture assessmentLateral decubitus thoracolumbar spine DXA (Medix DR, Medilink, France)
Functional performance
 Timed up-and-goDigital stopwatch (Fisher Scientific, USA)
 Five times sit-to-standDigital stopwatch (Fisher Scientific, USA)
 Functional reachPerspex board with measurement grid lines
Muscle power
 Countermovement vertical jumpLoad cell (Advanced Mechanical Technology, Watertown, Massachusetts, USA)
Isometric muscle strength
 Lower extremity strengthLeg platform dynamometer (TTM Muscle Meter, Tokyo, Japan)
 Back extensor strengthDynamometer (Lafayette Manual Muscle Testing Systems, USA)
Dietary calcium intakeAusCal questionnaire
Bone-specific physical activityBone-specific Physical Activity Questionnaire (BPAQ)
Barriers and facilitatorsPhysical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) questionnaire
Semistructured interviews
Quality of LifeWHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaire
Safety (adverse events and injuries) and compliancePurpose-designed lifestyle diaries and training diaries
Trainer records
  • aBMD, areal bone mineral density; BMC, bone mineral content; DXA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; pQCT, peripheral Quantitative CT; vBMD, volumetric bone mineral density.