Table 3

Studies published in the grey literature included in Bradford Hill criteria assessment

Author and year publishedStudy characteristicsStudy assessmentBradford Hill criteria met
CountryStudy designPopulation or participantsPricing intervention studiedOutcomes studiedPeer reviewedConflict of interestQuality rating
Angus 201645ScotlandModelling study using SAPMScottish general population survey (subgroups of moderate, harmful, hazardous)MUP of 30p, 40p, 50p, 60p and 70p, compared with taxation interventionsAlcohol consumption, consumer spending, exchequer and retail revenue, 47 health harmsNot statedNoneStrongCON, SP, DR, PL, CO
Booth 200846WorldwideReview of reviews and systematic reviewStudies tended to cover general populationVarious minimum unit prices and taxation interventionsAlcohol consumption and various measures of alcohol harmYesNoneStrongAN
Brennan 200847EnglandModelling study using SAPMAdults in EnglandGeneral price increases. MUP of £0.20, £0.25, £0.30, £0.35, £0.40, £0.45, £0.50, £0.60 and £0.70. Restrictions on off-trade price promotions.Alcohol consumption, consumer spending, sales duty and VAT, 47 health harms, crime and employmentNot statedNoneStrongCON, SP, DR, PL, CO
Hill McManus 201248CanadaModelling study using SAPMAdults in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and British Columbia)MUP of C$1.50Alcohol consumption, consumer spending, hospital admissions, mortality, crimeNoNoneStrongCON, SP, PL, CO
Institute for Fiscal Studies 201049Great BritainEconomic modelling study using market research dataShopping data from 25 248 British householdsMUP of £0.45Alcohol consumptionNot statedNot statedNot possible to rateCON, SP, CO
Institute for Fiscal Studies 201350Great BritainEconomic analysisPopulation of Great BritainMUP of £0.45 and increased alcohol taxationAlcohol consumptionNot statedNot statedNot possible to rateCON, SP, CO
Meng 201051ScotlandModelling study using SAPMAdults in ScotlandMUP of £0.20, £0.25, £0.30, £0.35, £0.40, £0.45, £0.50, £0.60 and £0.70. Restrictions on off-trade price promotions.Alcohol consumption, consumer spending, 47 health harms, crime, employmentNot statedNoneStrongCON, SP, DR, PL, CO
  • AN, analogy; CO, coherence; CON, consistency; DR, dose–response; EX, experiment; PL, plausibility; SA, strength of the association; SAPM, Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model; SP, specificity; TE, temporality.