Table 2

Annual incidence of microvascular and cardiovascular complications

Complication Annual incidence (%)
Kidney failure
 Moderate (eGFR: 30–60)2.4–9.6
 Severe (eGFR ≤30)0.1–0.6
Vision-threatening retinopathy†0.8–1.8
Ulceration or amputation0.7
Cardiovascular disease‡3.0–4.1
  • *Kidney function was expressed as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula.8

  • †Grade of retinopathy was determined using EURODIAB classification score9 ; vision-threatening retinopathy was considered to be grades 3–5.

  • ‡Cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, heart failure, stroke, transient ischaemic attack and peripheral arterial disease was based on self-reported events during the annual visit.

  • The incidence of complications was calculated during each year of follow-up, and the range of the annual incidence during follow-up is presented.