Table 1

Characteristics of the study subjects and comparison of environmental risk factors of lumbar spine pathologies between controls and all cases or subgroups

FactorsControlsAll casesSubgroup 1Subgroup 2Subgroup 3Subgroup 4
Age (years)Mean±SD45.92±13.2149.35±15.6741.56±12.4243.73±9.8044.13±12.9354.89±13.55
GenderMales, n (%)224 (56.0)226 (52.8)81448318
Females, n (%)176 (44.0)202 (47.2)75405829
Body mass index (kg/m2)Mean±SD24.3±2.724.1±2.923.8±2.124.0±1.824.3±1.924.5±2.6
Past and present smokern (%)102 (25.5)129 (30.1)51283911
Physical workload (scores 0–3)Mean±SD1.12±1.031.61±1.31*1.55±1.12*1.58±1.23*1.86±1.53*1.64±1.25*
Exposure to vibrations (hours/day)Mean±SD1.24±1.761.33±1.581.21±0.981.38±1.421.35±1.281.27±1.17
Other orthopaedic conditionsn/572111169
  • Subgroup 1, patients with disc herniation only.

  • Subgroup 2, patients with discopathies or/and osteochondrosis associated without disc herniation.

  • Subgroup 3, patients with spinal stenosis or/and spondylolisthesis.

  • Subgroup 4, patients with degenerative scoliosis.

  • *Compared with controls, p value is less than 0.05.