Table 4

Results of tests comparing alternative life course hypotheses for crystallised cognitive ability (NSHD: NART Score, Whitehall II: Mill Hill Test Score) with the saturated model (NSHD models are unadjusted, Whitehall II models are adjusted for age and number of times the Mill Hill test has previously been taken. Multiple imputation is implemented to account for missing data)

NSHDWhitehall II
Women (n=2547)Men (n=2815)Women (n=3413)Men (n=6895)
Hypothesis F statisticp Value*F statisticp Value*F statisticp Value*F statisticp Value*
No effect94.00<0.000186.99<0.000158.98<0.0001129.45<0.0001
Accumulation models
Adult accumulation5.64<0.00011.19 0.3116 4.280.00037.89<0.0001
Sensitive period1.39 0.2375 0.10 0.9821 0.97 0.4224 0.32 0.8670
Critical period models
Childhood SEP63.58<0.000177.04<0.000161.78<0.0001138.57<0.0001
Early adulthood SEP19.95<0.000132.40<0.000130.50<0.000172.73<0.0001
Adult SEP61.93<0.000132.94<0.000112.21<0.000134.71<0.0001
Social mobility models
Intergenerational without constraints15.23<0.000138.33<0.000144.99<0.0001102.97<0.0001
Intragenerational without constraints10.84<0.00014.770.00092.810.02578.08<0.0001
Any mobility128.51<0.0001112.79<0.000169.45<0.0001152.22<0.0001
Any mobility with three-way interaction31.25<0.000125.20<0.00019.28<0.000128.91<0.0001
  • *The p values test whether the life course model is significantly different from the saturated model. p Values in bold indicate where a model fits as well as the saturated model.

  • NART, National Adult Reading Test; NSHD, National Survey of Health and Development; SEP, socioeconomic position.