Table 2

Risk of chronic lung diseases among three exposed groups compared with the non-exposed group

VariablesNon-exposed groupFetal-exposed groupInfant-exposed groupPreschool-exposed group
Severely affected famine area
 Prevalence (%)5.65.610.45.6
 p*0.9730.0220.983
 OR (95% CI)*Ref.0.99 (0.53 to 1.84)1.95 (1.10 to 3.44)0.99 (0.60 to 1.66)
 p 0.9530.0090.437
 OR (95% CI) Ref.0.98 (0.43 to 2.20)2.57 (1.26 to 5.25)0.75 (0.36 to 1.56)
Less severely affected famine area
 Prevalence (%)6.46.96.47.6
 p* 0.6910.9640.336
 OR (95% CI)*Ref.1.09 (0.71 to 1.66)1.01 (0.60 to 1.70)1.21 (0.82 to 1.76)
 p 0.2540.3980.471
 OR (95% CI) Ref.1.38 (0.79 to 2.41)1.33 (0.69 to 3.56)1.22 (0.71 to 2.10)
p for interaction between area and group*Ref.0.4680.1090.178
p for interaction between area and group Ref.0.4210.0610.223
  • *Single variance binary logistic regression model.

  • †Multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for gender, smoking, drinking, family economic status and the highest educational attainment of parents.