Table 1

Basic characteristics of study population according to exposure to the Chinese famine

VariablesNon-exposed groupFetal-exposed groupInfant-exposed groupPreschool-exposed groupp Value
Birth date10/1/1962–
9/30/1964
10/1/1959–
9/30/1961
19581/1/–
12/31/1958
1/1/1956-
12/31/1957
N15368345181247
Age in 2011 (years)47~4950~515354~55
Born in severely affected area, n (%)657 (42.8)269 (32.3)192 (37.1)482 (38.7)p<0.001
Women, n (%)801 (52.2)438 (52.6)241 (46.5)614 (49.3)p=0.067
Smoking, n (%)p=0.014
 Never970 (66.4)519 (65.1)297 (61.4)711 (59.8)
 Former80 (5.5)36 (4.5)28 (5.8)77 (6.5)
 Current410 (28.1)242 (30.4)159 (32.9)400 (33.7)
Drinking, n (%)p=0.614
 Never948 (61.8)513 (61.6)320 (61.9)787 (63.2)
 Less than once per month155 (10.1)82 (9.8)53 (10.3)100 (8.0)
 More than once per month430 (28.0)238 (28.6)144 (27.9)359 (28.8)
Family income, n (%)p=0.960
 High199 (54.4)115 (53.5)65 (52.4)143 (52.4)
 Low167 (45.6)100 (46.5)59 (47.6)130 (47.6)
Education, n (%)p=0.390
 Primary school and below695 (89.7)396 (89.8)246 (88.8)567 (92.5)
 Junior school40 (5.2)27 (6.1)16 (5.8)25 (4.1)
 High school31 (4.0)12 (2.7)10 (3.6)19 (3.1)
 College and above9 (1.2)6 (1.4)5 (1.8)2 (0.3)
Prevalence of chronic lung disease (%)6.16.57.96.8p=0.511