Table 4

Estimates of the relationship between support outcomes and bereavement exposure (suicide versus sudden unnatural death)

Exposure groupSudden unnatural death (n=712)Suicide (n=614)
OR (reference)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)p Value*Adjusted† OR (95% CI)p Value*
Primary outcomes
 Receipt of formal support postbereavement10.92 (0.72 to 1.16)0.4620.91 (0.72 to 1.16)0.437
 Receipt of informal support postbereavement 1 0.74 (0.58 to 0.95)0.0200.74‡ (0.58 to 0.96)0.022
Secondary outcomes
 No support postbereavement§11.46 (0.95 to 1.52)0.0101.46 (1.09 to 1.95)0.011
 Immediate receipt of support (<1 week)10.76 (0.60 to 96)0.0210.76 (0.60 to 0.97)0.025
 Delayed receipt of valuable support (>6 months)11.19 (0.94 to 1.51)0.1391.21 (0.95 to 1.54)0.120
 Use of formal support exclusively¶11.16 (0.79 to 1.70)0.4631.13 (0.77 to 1.67)0.542
 Help sought for postbereavement self-harm††12.18 (0.79 to 5.98)0.1312.28 (0.78 to 6.68)0.132
  • *Significance threshold of p=0.05 for primary outcomes and p=0.01 for secondary outcomes.

  • †Adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, preloss depression, preloss suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm, other family history of suicide (excluding index bereavement), time since bereavement and kinship to the deceased.

  • ‡Association no longer significant when stigma added to final adjusted model

  • §Outcome excluded those who solely endorsed that they chose to handle the bereavement alone.

  • ¶In subset of n=2572 receiving support after bereavement.

  • ††In subset of n=210 who had attempted suicide postbereavement.