Table 3

Estimates of the relationship between support outcomes and bereavement exposure (suicide versus sudden natural death)

Exposure groupSudden natural death (n=2106)Sudden unnatural death (n=712)Suicide (n=614)
Prevalence n (%)OR (reference)Prevalence n (%)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)p Value*Adjusted† OR (95% CI)p Value*Prevalence n (%)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)p Value*Adjusted† OR (95% CI)p Value*
Primary outcomes
 Receipt of formal support postbereavement776 (37)1272 (38)1.05
(0.88 to 1.27)
0.5481.28‡
(1.05 to 1.56)
0.015221 (36)0.97
(0.80 to 1.18)
0.7531.17
(0.94 to 1.44)
0.155
 Receipt of informal support postbereavement1396 (66)1491 (69)1.13
(0.92 to 1.38)
0.2571.06
(0.86 to 1.33)
0.553389 (63)0.83
(0.68 to 1.02)
0.0830.79‡
(0.64 to 0.98)
0.038
Secondary outcomes
 No support postbereavement§428 (20)1129 (18)0.83
(0.66 to 1.05)
0.1220.83
(0.65 to 1.07)
0.149141 (23)1.21
(0.97 to 1.52)
0.0971.21
(0.95 to 1.55)
0.119
 Immediate receipt of support (<1 week)913 (43)1306 (43)0.97
(0.81 to 1.17)
0.7470.96
(0.79 to 1.17)
0.660219 (36)0.74
(0.60 to 0.90)
0.0020.73‡
(0.59 to 0.90)
0.003
 Delayed receipt of valuable support (>6 months)814 (39)1291 (41)1.05
(0.88 to 1.27)
0.5751.10
(0.90 to 1.35)
0.359271 (44)1.26
(1.04 to 1.53)
0.0201.33‡
(1.08 to 1.64)
0.008
 Use of formal support exclusively¶217/1573 (14)176/558 (14)0.98
(0.72 to 1.33)
0.8881.11
(0.80 to 1.54)
0.51668/441 (15)1.12
(0.82 to 1.55)
0.4541.26
(0.90 to 1.76)
0.183
 Help sought for postbereavement self-harm†† 42/112 (38)18/42 (19)0.37
(0.15 to 0.95)
0.0380.43
(0.16 to 1.13)
0.08619/56 (34)0.82
(0.41 to 1.65)
0.5790.98
(0.44 to 2.17)
0.953
  • *Significance threshold of p=0.05 for primary outcomes and p=0.01 for secondary outcomes.

  • †Adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, preloss depression, preloss suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm, other family history of suicide (excluding index bereavement), time since bereavement and kinship to the deceased.

  • ‡Association no longer significant when stigma added to final adjusted model.

  • §Outcome excluded those who solely endorsed that they chose to handle the bereavement alone.

  • ¶In subset of n=2572 receiving support after bereavement.

  • ††In sub-set of n=210 who had attempted suicide postbereavement.