Table 4

Binary mixed model: aOR of not reaching NAPLAN or WALNA benchmarks by Indigenous status, testing domain and testing year

Maternal alcohol diagnosis versus no diagnosis by yearNon-IndigenousIndigenousSignificance of difference in aOR*
aOR95% CIaOR95% CI
Numeracy
n=80 442 observationsn=35 102 observations
Year 31.2(1.1 to 1.3)1.6(1.4 to 1.7)p=0.016
Year 51.4(1.2 to 1.5)1.6(1.5 to 1.8)p=0.003
Year 71.4(1.3 to 1.5)1.6(1.5 to 1.8)p=0.016
Year 91.6(1.4 to 1.8)1.9(1.6 to 2.1)p=0.065
Reading
n=80 306 observationsn=34 376 observations
Year 31.4(1.2 to 1.5)1.4(1.3 to 1.5)p=0.715
Year 51.4(1.2 to 1.5)1.5(1.4 to 1.7)p=0.066
Year 71.3(1.2 to 1.5)1.7(1.5 to 1.9)p=0.001
Year 91.6(1.4 to 1.8)1.9(1.6 to 2.1)p=0.105
Writing
n=78 663 observationsn=33 213 observations
Year 31.3(1.2 to 1.4)1.7(1.5 to 1.8)p<0.001
Year 51.3(1.2 to 1.4)1.7(1.6 to 1.9)p<0.001
Year 71.3(1.2 to 1.4)2.0(1.8 to 2.2)p<0.001
Year 91.5(1.3 to 1.6)2.0(1.8 to 2.3)p<0.001
Spelling†
n=74 133 observationsn=32 587 observations
Year 31.3(1.2 to 1.4)1.7(1.6 to 1.9)p<0.001
Year 51.4(1.3 to 1.5)1.8(1.6 to 2.0)p<0.001
Year 71.3(1.2 to 1.4)1.7(1.6 to 1.9)p<0.001
Year 91.3(1.1 to 1.5)1.5(1.3 to 1.8)p=0.103
  • Notes: Results are adjusted for maternal age and year of birth (matching variables), child gender, low birth weight, preterm, gender, calendar year of test, maternal marital status, SEIFA, rural/metro place of residence, illicit drug use and mental disorder.

  • *p Value of difference in estimates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous cohorts.

  • Spelling tests were only conducted in Year 9 under NAPLAN not WALNA.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; NAPLAN, National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy; SEIFA, Socio-Economic Index for Areas; WALNA, Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy.