Table 5

Binary mixed model: aOR of not reaching NAPLAN or WALNA benchmarks by timing of record of maternal alcohol diagnosis, Indigenous status and testing domain

Timing of record of diagnosisNon-IndigenousIndigenousSignificance of difference in aOR*
aOR95% CIaOR95% CI
Numeracy
n=80 442 observationsn=35 102 observations
No alcohol diagnosis1.01.0
GT 1 year prepregnancy1.4(1.3 to 1.6)1.5(1.3 to 1.8)p=0.449
Up to 1 year prepregnancy1.4(1.1 to 1.6)1.6(1.3 to 2.0)p=0.195
During pregnancy1.5(1.1 to 2.0)2.1(1.7 to 2.5)p=0.081
Up to 1 year postpregnancy1.5(1.2 to 2.0)1.5(1.2 to 1.8)p=0.897
GT 1 year postpregnancy1.3(1.2 to 1.4)1.6(1.5 to 1.8)p<0.001
Reading
n=80 306 observationsn=34 376 observations
No alcohol diagnosis1.01.0
GT 1 year prepregnancy1.4(1.3 to 1.6)1.6(1.4 to 1.8)p=0.219
Up to 1 year prepregnancy1.3(1.1 to 1.6)1.3(1.1 to 1.6)p=0.913
During pregnancy1.4(1.1 to 1.9)2.0(1.6 to 2.3)p=0.084
Up to 1 year postpregnancy1.5(1.1 to 1.9)1.8(1.5 to 2.3)p=0.268
GT 1 year postpregnancy1.4(1.3 to 1.5)1.5(1.4 to 1.6)p=0.061
Writing
n=78 663 observationsn=33 213 observations
No alcohol diagnosis1.01.0
GT 1 year prepregnancy1.4(1.3 to 1.6)1.8(1.6 to 2.0)p=0.007
Up to 1 year prepregnancy1.4(1.1 to 1.7)1.8(1.5 to 2.2)p=0.041
During pregnancy1.6(1.2 to 2.1)2.4(1.9 to 2.9)p=0.018
Up to 1 year postpregnancy1.4(1.1 to 1.8)1.8(1.4 to 2.3)p=0.130
GT 1 year postpregnancy1.3(1.2 to 1.4)1.7(1.6 to 1.9)p<0.001
Spelling†
n=74 133 observationsn=32 587 observations
No alcohol diagnosis1.01.0
GT 1 year prepregnancy1.5(1.3 to 1.6)1.7(1.5 to 2.0)p=0.055
Up to 1 year prepregnancy1.4(1.2 to 1.7)2.1(1.7 to 2.6)p=0.008
During pregnancy1.4(1.1 to 1.9)2.3(1.9 to 2.9)p=0.007
Up to 1 year postpregnancy1.5(1.1 to 1.9)1.8(1.4 to 2.3)p=0.238
GT 1 year postpregnancy1.3(1.2 to 1.4)1.6(1.5 to 1.8)p<0.001
  • Notes: Results are adjusted for maternal age and year of birth (matching variables), child gender, low birth weight, preterm, calendar year of test, testing year (3, 5, 7, 9), maternal marital status, SEIFA, rural/metro place of residence, illicit drug use and mental disorder; random intercept per child.

  • *p Value of difference in estimates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous cohorts.

  • †Spelling tests were only conducted in Year 9 under NAPLAN not WALNA.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; NAPLAN, National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy; SEIFA, Socio-Economic Index for Areas; WALNA, Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy; GT, greater than.