Table 1

Target countries, databases, operations and complications for review

CountriesDatabasesOperationsComplications
Australia
Canada
New Zealand
UK
USA
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI)—Canada
American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP, or ACS-NSQIP)—USA, Canada, Australia, UK
Healthcare Research and Utilization Project (HCUP)—USA
• Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS)
• Kids Inpatient Database (KID)
Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database—USA, Canada
Vascular Quality Initiative—USA, Canada
Medicare— Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) database—USA
Centres for Disease Control and Prevention—National Centre for Health Statistics (CDC-NCHS)—USA
National Health Services—UK
• Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)
• Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC)
Society for Cardiothoracic Surgery database (SCTS)—UK
National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD) UK
Health Quality and Safety Commission (HQSC)—New Zealand
National Minimum Dataset (NMDS)—Australia, New Zealand
Australian and New Zealand Audit of Surgical Mortality (ANZASM)—Australia, New Zealand
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW)—Australia
Knee replacement
Hip replacement
Appendectomy
Cholecystectomy
Oesophagectomy*
Pancreatectomy*
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair*
Aortic valve replacement*
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)*
Mortality
Length of stay
Pulmonary embolus
Pneumonia
Surgical site infection
Sepsis or septic shock
Reoperation
Wound dehiscence
Blood transfusion
Myocardial infarction
Stroke
Common bile duct injury
Readmission
  • * Operations identified by Leapfrog as high-risk cases (note CABG is no longer included in this group but is included in this analysis as it remains one of the most common operations in two of the five countries and was one of the first six high-risk cases identified by Leapfrog).