Table 1A

Details of the cohort studies meeting the inclusion criteria

Cohort studyCountryPopulation characteristics (age)Cohort (% men)Baseline exposure ascertainmentOutcomeOutcome ascertainmentFollow-up yearsCases (rate/1000)NOS quality score
Inoue et al 36 JapanGen pop (40–69)*90 452 (48)FFQHCCCancer registry, death records, medical records9.7 (average)334 (3.7)7
Kurozawa et al 35 JapanGen pop (40–79)*; HCC deaths within first 2 years excluded110 688 (42)FFQHCC deathDeath records9–11 (total)258 (2.3)7
Shimazu et al (cohort 1)39 JapanGen pop (≥40)*22 404 (47)FFQPLCCancer registry, death records, medical records9 (total)70 (3.1)6
Shimazu et al (cohort 2)39 JapanGen pop (40–64)*38 703 (49)FFQPLCCancer registry, death records, medical records7 (total)47 (1.2)6
Hu et al 38 FinlandGen pop (25–74)*60 323 (49)FFQPLCCancer registry19.3 (median)128 (2.1)8
Johnson et al 41 SingaporeGen pop (45–74)*61 321 (44)FFQHCCCancer registry and death recordsNA362 (5.9)8
Lai et al 23 FinlandMale smokers (50–69) from an RCT into lung cancer*; self-reported cirrhosis excluded at baseline27 037 (100)FFQLCCancer registry18.2 (median)194 (7.2)6
Bamia et al 21 Europe **Gen pop (25–70)*486 799 (30)FFQHCCCancer registry, death records, health insurance records and mail/telephone11 (median)201 (0.4)7
Setiawan et al 15 USAGen pop (45–75)*162 022 (47)FFQHCCCancer registry18 (median)451 (2.8)7
Petrick et al 22 USAGen pop (<50–≥70)*1 212 893 (41)FFQHCCCancer registry, medical records, self-reportingVariable860 (0.7)6
  • *Participants with a diagnosis of HCC were excluded at baseline.

  • **Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and UK.

  • FFQ, food frequency questionnaire; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; LC, liver cancer; NA, not applicable; NOS, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale; PLC, primary liver cancer; RCT, randomised controlled trial.