Table 3

ORs for past-year generalised anxiety disorder according to individual-level and area-level characteristics for men (n=8219) who completed the Health and Life Experiences questionnaire in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk cohort

ORs and 95% CIp Value for Model C
Characteristic*UnadjustedModel A†Model B‡Model C§
Individual-level variables
Sociodemographics
Age (per 10 years)0.59 (0.49 to 0.71)0.58 (0.48 to 0.71)0.63 (0.51 to 0.77)0.52 (0.41 to 0.64)<0.0001
Education¶
 Low0.91 (0.63 to 1.32)1.13 (0.75 to 1.70)1.16 (0.78 to 1.74)1.09 (0.73 to 1.63)0.670
 High1.001.001.001.00
Marital status
 Single2.65 (1.44 to 4.86)2.34 (1.26 to 4.36)2.67 (1.39 to 5.10)2.57 (1.32 to 5.01)0.006
 Married1.001.001.001.00
 Other**2.09 (1.31 to 3.33)2.21 (1.39 to 3.52)1.48 (0.90 to 2.44)1.51 (0.91 to 2.51)0.111
Social class††
 Manual0.92 (0.65 to 1.29)0.83 (0.58 to 1.20)0.84 (0.58 to 1.23)0.74 (0.50 to 1.09)0.125
 Non-manual1.001.001.001.00
Health status
Life-time MDD
 Yes15.38 (10.87 to 21.76)14.25 (9.97 to 20.37)12.88 (8.99 to 18.46)<0.0001
 No1.001.001.00
Prevalent physical disease‡‡
 Yes1.68 (1.20 to 2.35)1.53 (1.07 to 2.20)0.021
 No1.001.00
Disability level
High§§2.71 (1.88 to 3.90)3.10 (2.13 to 4.51)<0.0001
 Low1.001.00
Area-level variable
Townsend index
Deprivation
 Yes (>0)1.36 (0.90 to 2.06)1.26 (0.82 to 1.94)1.19 (0.76 to 1.85)1.13 (0.72 to 1.77)0.598
 No (≤0)1.001.001.001.00
  • *The parentheses show the reference categories that were used for each categorical variable when it was entered in the models—deprivation: [no] versus yes; GAD: [no] versus yes; education: [high] versus low; marital status: [married], single, others; social class: [non-manual] versus manual; lifetime MDD: [no] versus yes; prevalent physical disease: [no] versus yes; disability level: [low] versus high. These reference categories were based on the literature.26 ,28–33 Choosing other groupings for the potential confounders would not have changed the results.

  • †Adjusted for age, SES (education, marital status, social class).

  • ‡Adjusted for age, SES, lifetime MDD.

  • §Adjusted for age, SES, lifetime MDD, physical diseases and disability.

  • ¶High education: O-level, A-level, degree; low education: refers to no education.

  • **Other: divorced, separated, widowed.

  • ††Manual: skilled manual, semiskilled, non-skilled; non-manual: professionals, managerial, skilled non-manual.

  • ‡‡Prevalent physical disease: respiratory disease (asthma, bronchitis), allergies (allergies, hay fever), stroke, heart attack, cancer, diabetes, thyroid conditions, arthritis.

  • §§Below the median PCS value of 50.6.