Table 1

Programme mechanisms embedded in EMPOWER intervention

Mechanisms Components of the EMPOWER brochure
Increase motivation to deprescribe by changing knowledge and beliefsMessaging on the front page
‘You May be at Risk’ to raise awareness of the harms of benzodiazepines
Interactive knowledge test with four true/false questions and answers about the harms of benzodiazepines, aimed at increasing knowledgeInformation about changes in drug metabolism with age that can lead to a higher risk of side effects, meant to change beliefs and elicit concern about the safety of the medication in older adults
Increase capacity to taper by augmenting self-efficacyA list of alternative non-pharmacological approaches to sleep and anxiety that patients can use as substitutesAn inspirational story using social comparison and peer championing to increase self-efficacy for taperingProvision of an easy-to-use visual 16–20 weeks tapering tool showing when to take a whole, half or quarter pill, and when to skip the dose completely
Drive opportunities to discuss and initiate deprescribing with a healthcare providerInstruction to ‘Please consult your doctor or pharmacist before stopping any medication’ in a large red boxLogos on the brochure provide source credibility for the patient to initiate conversationsThe printed format of the eight-page brochure makes it an effective knowledge transfer piece to take and show to a healthcare provider