Table 3

Estimates of effect in primary outcome and patient-reported secondary outcome measures for those who responded to the extended follow-up

Mean change from baseline (95% CI)Mean treatment difference (95% CI)p ValueNumber of participants confirmed
Usual careExercise programme
MHQ overall hand function
4 months3.27 (1.15 to 5.39)9.27 (7.19 to 11.34)6.24 (3.56 to 8.92)***<0.0001320
12 months3.19 (0.79 to 5.59)7.18 (5.02 to 9.33)3.91 (0.71 to 7.10)*0.0171324
Extended follow-up1.97 (−0.45 to 4.39)3.76 (1.50 to 6.02)1.52 (−1.71 to 4.76)0.3567327
MHQ ADL (both hands)
4 months3.37 (0.94 to 5.79)8.29 (5.61 to 10.96)5.07 (1.73 to 8.42)**0.0032319
12 months2.53 (−0.12 to 5.18)5.34 (2.71 to 7.97)2.83 (−0.90 to 6.56)0.1375323
Extended follow-up2.34 (0.03 to 4.66)3.15 (0.30 to 6.01)0.72 (−2.88 to 4.32)0.6948324
MHQ work
4 months4.91 (1.91 to 7.91)8.26 (5.47 to 11.04)3.04 (−0.96 to 7.04)0.1370316
12 months2.97 (−0.05 to 5.99)7.70 (4.73 to 10.68)4.44 (0.30 to 8.57)*0.0363323
Extended follow-up5.81 (2.97 to 8.65)7.76 (4.67 to 10.84)2.06 (−2.10 to 6.22)0.3318315
SF 12 Mental Component Score (MCS)
4 months0.70 (−0.62 to 2.02)1.09 (−0.18 to 2.37)0.51 (−1.16 to 2.18)0.5488319
12 months0.21 (−1.21 to 1.64)2.12 (0.54 to 3.69)1.63 (−0.22 to 3.49)0.0857322
Extended follow-up0.21 (−1.23 to 1.66)0.27 (−1.25 to 1.78)0.22 (−1.71 to 2.15)0.8252326
SF 12 Physical Component Score (PCS)
4 months0.62 (−0.39 to 1.63)1.84 (0.65 to 3.02)1.37 (−0.12 to 2.86)0.0719319
12 months−0.09 (−1.24 to 1.06)0.76 (−0.39 to 1.92)0.72 (−0.79 to 2.23)0.3519321
Extended follow-up−0.51 (−1.66 to 0.64)0.19 (−1.16 to 1.54)0.50 (−1.24 to 2.25)0.5720326
EQ-5D health state
4 months0.0 (−0.03 to 0.04)0.06 (0.02,0.09)0.03 (−0.01 to 0.07)0.1654319
12 months0.02 (−0.02 to 0.05)0.04 (0.00 to 0.07)0.00 (−0.04 to 0.05)0.82390.322
Extended follow-up−0.01 (−0.05 to 0.02)−0.01 (−0.05 to 0.03)−0.01 (−0.06 to 0.04)0.6893324
Pain troublesomeness score†
4 months−4.79 (−7.76 to −1.82)−5.57 (−8.25 to −2.90)−2.51 (−6.22 to 1.21)0.1872315
12 months−4.68 (−7.83 to −1.53)−5.03 (−8.16 to −1.90)−1.58 (−5.65 to 2.48)0.4454322
Extended follow-up−3.79 (−6.93 to −0.64)0.20 (−2.98 to 3.38)3.23 (−0.83 to 7.28)0.1199326
Self-efficacy—confidence to manage their condition
4 months2.38 (−0.15 to 4.62)6.58 (3.74 to 9.42)3.41 (0.5 to 6.29)*0.0209319
12 months1.30 (−1.32 to 3.92)5.46 (2.29 to 8.62)3.19 (0.71 to 6.98)0.1113321
Extended follow-up0.22 (−2.34 to 2.78)2.96 (0.03 to 5.90)2.30 (−1.20 to 5.79)0.1988323
  • *p<0.05; ** p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • †Higher score, more pain.

  • ADL, activities of daily living; EQ-5D, EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire; MHQ, Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire.