Table 3

Multinomial logistic regression models for correlates of low back pain

Variables/ODILowMediumHighp Value for trend*
OR95% CIp ValueOR95% CIp Value
Total participants
 Age (years)Ref.0.950.90 to 1.000.0671.010.96 to 1.060.8480.740
 BMI (kg/m2)Ref.1.040.95 to 1.140.3771.010.92 to 1.100.8580.269
 MaleRef.0.720.42 to 1.250.2390.590.34 to 1.040.0660.241
 Bachelor or moreRef.0.770.44 to 1.350.3620.640.37 to 1.120.1220.626
 MarriedRef.1.650.86 to 3.160.1292.081.06 to 4.080.0340.000
 Low back injuryRef.2.120.73 to 6.200.1694.361.65 to 11.710.0030.000
 Work years ≥5 yearsRef.1.210.63 to 2.350.5681.060.53 to 2.110.8710.264
 Cold office temperatureRef.2.431.02 to 5.790.0454.171.82 to 9.570.0010.000
 Computer displayer not in frontRef.1.050.62 to 1.770.8672.051.22 to 3.440.0070.005
 Computer use ≥8 hours/dayRef.1.230.75 to 2.020.4091.040.63 to 1.730.8790.312
Male
 Age (years)Ref.0.910.84 to 1.000.0450.980.91 to 1.050.5420.838
 BMI (kg/m2)Ref.1.070.92 to 1.240.3730.980.86 to 1.120.7970.450
 Bachelor or moreRef.0.630.25 to 1.590.3260.390.16 to 0.930.0340.092
 MarriedRef.0.910.32 to 2.630.8631.300.44 to 3.840.6330.144
 Low back injuryRef.7.241.30 to 40.200.0245.781.07 to 31.070.0410.053
 Work years ≥5 yearsRef.2.740.95 to 7.860.0622.330.78 to 7.000.1320.203
 Cold office temperatureRef.1.450.33 to 6.500.6242.140.53 to 8.650.2860.629
 Computer displayer not in frontRef.0.440.18 to 1.090.0771.290.57 to 2.920.5410.144
 Computer use ≥8 hours/dayRef.1.410.64 to 3.130.3940.710.31 to 1.640.4250.180
Female
 Age (years)Ref.0.980.91 to 1.050.5011.030.96 to 1.100.4380.574
 BMI (kg/m2)Ref.1.030.92 to 1.150.6691.030.91 to 1.160.6260.476
 Bachelor or moreRef.0.820.39 to 1.720.6010.790.37 to 1.680.5400.737
 MarriedRef.3.311.34 to 8.160.0093.501.39 to 8.810.0080.001
 Low back injuryRef.0.920.19 to 4.600.9214.211.18 to 15.040.0270.002
 Work years ≥5 yearsRef.0.610.24 to 1.540.2920.570.22 to 1.460.2400.594
 Cold office temperatureRef.2.880.92 to 8.980.0695.351.79 to 16.030.0030.000
 Computer displayer not in frontRef.1.930.96 to 3.900.0673.221.586.540.0010.016
 Computer use ≥8 hours/dayRef.1.080.56 to 2.090.8161.130.57 to 2.230.7320.499
  • *The p values for trend were obtained from multiple linear regression models.

  • BMI, body mass index; ODI, Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index.