Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of study participants

Lowest quartile of neighbourhood walkabilityHighest quartile of neighbourhood walkabilityTotal study population
  
CharacteristicFrequency (%)Mean (SD)N patients with dataFrequency (%)Mean (SD)N patients with dataFrequency (%)Mean (SD)N patients with data
Sex (female)11 303(62.3%)18 13711 399 (62.7%)18 19248 556 (62.2%)78 022
Age (years)49.2 (19.2)18 12248.5 (17.9)18 18050.0 (19.2)77 966
 18≤age<406448 (35.6%)6895 (37.9%)26 977 (34.6%)
 40<age≤657731 (42.7%)7760 (42.7%)33 056 (42.4%)
 >65 years3943 (21.8%)3525 (19.4%)17 933 (23.0%)
Smoking (current smoker)1530 (12.0%)12 7721669 (13.3%)12 5116808 (12.1%)56 093
Anthropometric indicators
 Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2)29.6 (10.0)981926.0 (6.22)10 92027.2 (7.4)46 029
 Overweight or obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2)6370 (64.9%)98195505 (50.4%)10 92026 309 (57.2%)46 029
 Prescribed weight-loss medication1146 (6.3%)18 137523 (2.9%)18 1923387 (4.3%)78 023
Blood pressure control
 Hypertension diagnosis4068 (22.4%)18 1372980 (16.4%)18 19216 241 (20.8%)78 023
 Prescribed antihypertensive medication4796 (26.4%)18 1373555 (19.5%)18 19219 020 (24.4%)78 023
 Systolic blood pressure (sBP) (mm Hg)121.5 (16.0)13 722117.4 (15.5)13 950119.8 (16.0)59 634
 Diastolic blood pressure (dBP) (mm Hg)75.0 (10.0)13 72273.1 (10.0)13 95073.8 (10.0)59 634
Blood glucose control
 Diabetes diagnosis2242 (12.4%)18 1371096 (6.0%)18 1926988 (9.0%)78 023
 Prescribed antidiabetic medication1788 (9.9%)18 137786 (4.3%)18 1925220 (6.7%)78 023
 Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (%)6.10 (1.10)67215.74 (0.75)55705.89 (0.88)29 575
 Fasting blood glucose (FBG) (mmol/L)5.56 (1.70)83885.32 (1.26)63675.42 (1.46)34 698
Lipid control
 Prescribed lipid-lowering medication3686 (20.3%)18 1372453 (13.5%)18 19213 979 (17.9%)78 023
 Total cholesterol (TC) (mmol/L)4.73 (1.08)86904.93 (1.04)68254.81 (1.06)36 498
 High-density lipoprotein (HDL) (mmol/L)1.43 (0.41)88441.58 (0.47)70141.49 (0.44)37 295
 Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (mmol/L)2.71 (0.90)87702.78 (0.88)69832.74 (0.89)37 097
 Triglycerides (TG) (mmol/L)1.34 (1.05)88831.26 (0.79)70081.31 (0.87)37 417
 Neighbourhood violent crime rate*
(events/10 000 residents)
95.4 (49.8)18 137128.2 (84.3)18 19291.3 (59.6)78 023
 Neighbourhood instability score†−0.048 (0.48)18 1371.37 (0.68)18 1920.480 (0.71)78 023
 Neighbourhood deprivation score†0.30 (0.96)18 137−0.53 (0.69)18 192−0.170 (0.77)78 023
 Neighbourhood ethnic concentration score†1.78 (0.89)18 1370.82 (0.89)18 1921.353 (1.08)78 023
 Neighbourhood dependency score†−0.020 (0.36)18 137−0.44 (0.27)18 192−0.100 (0.39)78 023
  • N, number of observations in study sample.

  • *Violent crime includes occurrences of assault, sexual assault, robbery and murder.

  • †Scores of neighbourhood instability, deprivation, ethnic concentration and dependency are dimensions of the Ontario Marginalization Index.49 Scores are population-weighted, and higher values indicate greater instability/deprivation/ethnic concentration/dependency.