Table 3

Adjusted linear regression coefficients comparing differences in the mean health measures between the highest and lowest quartiles of neighbourhood walkability

Health measure (unit)Regression coefficient (95% CI)p Value
BMI (kg/m2)—all ages≥ 18−2.64 (−2.98 to −2.30)<0.001
 18 ≤ age <40−4.44 (−5.09 to −3.79)<0.001
 40 ≤ age ≤65−2.74 (−3.24 to −2.23)<0.001
 Age > 65−0.87 (−1.48 to −0.26)0.005
sBP (mm Hg)—all ages≥18−1.35 (−2.01 to −0.70)<0.001
 18 ≤ age <40−0.64 (−1.68 to 0.41)0.23
 40 ≤ age ≤65−1.97 (−2.91 to −1.03)<0.001
 Age > 65−0.64 (−2.14 to 0.85)0.40
dBP (mm Hg)—all ages≥18−0.60 (−1.06 to −0.14)0.010
 18 ≤ age <400.12 (−0.68 to 0.93)0.76
 40 ≤ age ≤65−1.30 (−1.94 to −0.66)<0.001
 Age > 65−0.19 (−1.13 to 0.75)0.69
HbA1c (%)—all ages≥ 18−0.063 (−0.11 to −0.021)0.003
 1 8 ≤ age <40−0.12 (−0.23 to −0.019)0.021
 40 ≤ age ≤65−0.059 (−0.12 to 0.0026)0.060
 Age > 65−0.013 (−0.078 to 0.051)0.69
FBG (mmol/L)—all ages≥ 180.030 (−0.038 to 0.099)0.39
 18 ≤ age <40−0.086 (−0.24 to 0.073)0.29
 40 ≤ age ≤650.028 (−0.068 to 0.12)0.57
 Age > 650.083 (−0.036 to 0.20)0.17
TC (mmol/L)—all ages≥ 180.061 (0.00025 to 0.12)0.049
 18 ≤ age <40−0.023 (−0.18 to 0.13)0.77
 40 ≤ age ≤650.11 (0.024 to 0.19)0.012
 Age > 65−0.023 (−0.13 to 0.078)0.65
HDL (mmol/L)—all ages≥180.052 (0.029 to 0.075)<0.001
 18 ≤ age <400.022 (0.038 to 0.081)0.47
 40 ≤ age ≤650.052 (0.020 to 0.084)0.001
 Age > 650.060 (0.019 to 0.10)0.004
LDL (mmol/L)—all ages≥ 180.010 (−0.041 to 0.062)0.69
 18 ≤ age <40−0.0088 (−0.14 to 0.12)0.89
 40 ≤ age ≤650.026 (−0.044 to 0.096)0.47
 Age > 65−0.036 (−0.12 to 0.049)0.41
Triglyceride (mmol/L)—all ages≥ 18−0.0031 (−0.053 to 0.047)0.90
 18≤ age <40−0.14 (−0.33 to 0.047)0.14
 40≤ age≤650.038 (−0.029 to 0.11)0.27
 Age >65−0.041 (−0.11 to 0.033)0.28
  • Results are presented for all ages and for each age subcategory. Regression coefficients represent differences in the mean health measure, adjusting for covariates of age, sex, current smoking status, BMI (except in the model where BMI is the health outcome measure) relevant medications and medical diagnoses, neighbourhood violent crime rates and neighbourhood indices of material deprivation, ethnic concentration, dependency and residential instability.