Table 3

Health and well-being outcomes (validated measures)

Study (timing of outcome measurement post baseline measurement)WEMWBSHADSGAD-7PHQ-9CORE-OMWSASGHQ-12COOP/WONCA
 Grant 2000 (4 months)Intervention group (N=62) * greater improvement than control group (N=48)*Intervention group (N=62) * greater improvement than control group (N=48) *
Before and after evaluations
 Friedli 2012 (NR)‘Statistically significant improvement’ in mental well-being (N=16) (scores not reported)‘Statistically significant improvement’ in functional ability (N=16)(scores not reported)
 Grayer 2008 (3 months)Small reduction in patients categorised as cases (N=74)Improvement in work and social adjustment (N=69)Four-fifths were cases at baseline, reducing to half of post intervention N=69)
Descriptive reports
 ERS Research and Consultancy 2013
Increase in mean score from 22 to 26 (N=16)
 Longwill 2014
2.5 points reduction in score (p<0.001)
3.1 points reduction in score (p<0.001) (N=387)
 Brandling 2011 (6–12 months)‘General positive trend but owing to low number of participants completing questionnaires no further conclusions can be made’
  • *calculated from reported percentage followed up at 4 months.

  • COOP/WONCA, Dartmouth COOP Functional Health Assessment Charts; CORE-OM, Core Outcome Measure; GAD-7, General Anxiety Disorder-7; GHQ-12, General Health Questionnaire-12; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; RCT, randomised controlled trial; WEMWBS, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale; WSAS, Work and Social Adjustment Scale.